Modernization Theory and House Garden Transformation; Erbil City as Case Study

Salahaddin Y. Baper, Ahmad S. Hassan, Susan T. Ismail

Abstract


Recently, the concept of modernity and its influences on global warming comes to be a common topic in architectural debates. The disappearance of gardens in the contemporary house layouts generated a need for new approaches to create a sustainable network of green areas within residential neighborhoods. The objectives of this paper intend to emphasize on the holistic phenomenon of house garden transformations. The rationale behind selecting cases inside Erbil city, Iraq return to its historical background which passed through rapid transformations due to the political, economic, and cultural changes. This paper aims to identify reason behind disappearance of house gardens in new developments. Moreover, it describes the physical elements of local traditions in different periods. The analytical methodology used in this paper relies on four different periods of the city evolution. It discusses the building garden visual elements in terms of architectural physical factors. The study emphases on two types of analyses, the morphology analyses for each period individually, and comparative analyses between different periods. The findings of this paper will indicate the crucial factors that affecting the disappearance of house garden as well as the general positive effects of vegetation in urban contexts.

Keywords


Erbil City, House Garden, Modernity, Morphology, Transformation

Full Text:

PDF

References


Baper, S. and Hassan, A., 2010. The Influence of Modernity on Kurdish Architectural Identity. American Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences, 3(1), pp.552-559.

Baper, S., Hassan, A., Mustafa, F. and Ismail, S., 2010. A Theoretical study on Modernity and Transformation in Architecture. Proceedings of the 14th IPHS Conference on Urban Transformation: Controversies, Contrasts and Challenges, Istanbul, Turkey, July, 2010.

Chadirji, R., 1986. Architectural Education in Iraq, Architectural Education in the Islamic World. Singapore: Concept Media/Aga Khan Award for Architecture.

Dar-Alhandasah, D. A., 2007. Erbil City Master Plan Report, Directorate of Research & Studies-General Directorate of Constructive Planning -Ministry of Municipalities/Kurdistan Regional Government. IQ0587-TOC-PM-04 Rev 1.2007.

Easton, V. A., 2007. Pattern Garden: the essential elements of garden making, First Edition, Timber press.

Froomkin, A. M., 2003. Habermas@ discourse.net: Toward a critical theory of cyberspace. Harvard Law Review, 116(1), pp.757-777.

Gunter, M. M., 2004. Historical dictionary of the Kurds Lanham, Maryland and Oxford, Scarecrow Press, Inc.

KRG.HCECR Report, 2009. High commission for Erbil citadel Revitalization. Accessed [20 September, 2013].

Herzog, T.R., and Chernick, K.K., 2000. Tranquillity and Danger in Urban and Natural Settings. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 20(1), pp.29-39.

Kuo, F. E., Bacaicoa, M., and Sullivan, W. C., 1998. Transforming inner-city landscapes: trees, sense of safety, and preference”. Environment and Behavior, 30(1), pp.28-59.

Rasoul, H., 2003. Architecture and Technology: An Analytical Study of the Act in the Technological Architecture. Unpublished Ph.D thesis, University of Technology, Baghdad.

Sheets, V. L., and Manzer, C. D., 1991. Affect, cognition, and urban vegetation: some effects of adding trees along city trees. Environment and Behavior, 23(3), pp.285-304.

Sullivan, W.C., Kuo, F.E., and DePooter, S.F., 2004. The fruit of urban nature: vital neighbourhood spaces. Environment and Behavior, 36(5), pp.678-700.

Turner, T., 2005. Garden History Philosophy and Design 2000 BC–2000 AD, First Edition, Spon press Taylor & Francis Group.

Wilson, E.O., 1984. Biophilia, the Human Bond with other Species. First Edition Cambridge, Mass: Harvard University Press.




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.14500/aro.10024
View Counter: Abstract | 523 | and PDF | 283 |

Article Metrics

Metrics Loading ...

Metrics powered by PLOS ALM

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Copyright (c) 2016 Salahaddin Y. Baper, Ahmad S. Hassan, Susan T. Ismail

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

  
 


ARO Journal is an OAJ supported by Koya University, it has no article submission/processing charges (APCs).
© 2013-2019, Koya University is a public University accredited by the Ministry of Higher Education and Scientific Research, KRG - F.R. Iraq.