ARO-THE SCIENTIFIC JOURNAL OF KOYA UNIVERSITY 2020-12-30T00:00:00+00:00 Dr. Dilan M. Rostam Open Journal Systems <p>ARO (Today in Hewramí Kurdish) is a&nbsp;scientific&nbsp;journal published by Koya University with&nbsp;e-ISSN: 2307-549X, p-ISSN: 2410-9355, and DOI: 10.14500/2307-549X.&nbsp;ARO is a journal of research articles, review articles, and letters to editor. ARO is a peer-reviewed, open access journal that publishes original works in areas of Science and Engineering. ARO has been indexed by <a href="">DOAJ</a> and got <a href="">DOAJ Seal</a>. ARO has been accepted for indexing in the Emerging Sources Citation Index (ESCI), a new edition of Web of Science™ - <a href=";Word=aro" target="_self">Clarivate&nbsp;Analytics</a> (Thomson Reuters)&nbsp;since Feb 2016.</p> Extraction and Determination of Oxymatrine Pesticide in Environmental Sample and in its Formulation using High-Performance Liquid Chromatography 2020-09-01T22:22:42+00:00 Ihsan M. Shaheed Saadiyah A. Dhahir <p>The quinolizindine alkaloid compound, oxymatrine pesticide, was analysis in the river water samples collected from different agriculture areas in the Iraqi city of Kerbala and also in its formulation using developed reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography method. Acetonitrile:methanol (60:40 v/v) was chosen as mobile phase at pH (7.0), flow rate 0.5 mL/min, and 20 µL as volume injection. Modified ecological-friendly method, dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction, was used for the extraction of oxymatrine from water samples. Linearity study was constructed from 0.1 to 70 μg/mL at λmax 205 nm. The limit of detection and limit of quantification were 0.025 and 0.082 μg/mL, respectively, and the relative standard deviation (RSD) % was 0.518%. Three spiked levels of concentration (20.0, 40.0, and 70.0 μg/mL) were used for the validation method. The percentage recovery for the three spiked samples was ranged between 98.743 and 99.432 and the RSD% was between 0.051 and 0.202%, the formulation studies of oxymatrine between 99.487 and 99.798, and the RSD% was ranged from 0.045 to 0.057%. The developed method can be used accurately and selectively for the determination of oxymatrine in environmental samples and in the formulation.</p> 2020-09-01T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Ihsan M. Shaheed, Saadiyah A. Dhahir Spectrophotometric Indirect Determination of Captopril through Redox Reaction with n-bromosuccinimide and RB dye in Pharmaceutical Products 2020-09-03T18:48:39+00:00 Dashne M. Kokhasmail Tara F. Tahir Kurdistan F. Azeez <p>A simple, accurate, and sensitive method for the spectrophotometric determination of captopril in bulk and dosage forms is reported. The method is based on the bromination of captopril with excess solution of n-bromosuccinimide (NBS) in HCl acid medium. The excess NBS is pursued by the assessment of the residual NBS based on its ability to bleach the rhodamine B dye and measuring the absorbance at 555 nm. The amount of NBS reacted coincides to the drug content. The different experimental parameters influencing the development and stability of the color are precisely studied and optimized. Beer’s law is valid within a concentration range of 0.3–1.0 μg/mL with a correlation coefficient R2 = 0.991. The limit of detection 0.169 μg/mL is attained and relative standard deviation values for five replicated measurements of 0.3, 0.7, and 1.0 μg/mL captopril were between 0.53% and 2.03%. No interference is detected from prevalent additives found in pharmaceutical preparations. The proposed method is profitably put on to the determination of captopril in the tablet formulations with mean recoveries 98.91–101.27% and the results were statistically confronted with those of a reference method by applying Student’s t-and F-test.</p> 2020-09-01T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Tara F. Tahir, Dashne M. Kokhasmail, Kurdistan F. Azeez Land Surface Temperature Anomalies Detection for the Strong Earthquakes in 2018 2020-09-03T18:48:41+00:00 Azad Rasul Luqman W. Omar <p>Earthquake every year leads to human and material losses and unpredictability of it by now makes this natural disaster worsen. The objective of the current study was to determine the anomalies in land surface temperature (LST) in areas affected by earthquakes. In this research, three earthquakes (M &gt;6) were studied. Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer Aqua and Terra day and night LST data used from 2003 to 2018. The interquartile range (IQR) and mean ± 2σ methods utilized to select anomalies. As a result, based on the IQR method, no prior and after anomaly detected in selected cases and data. Based on mean ± 2σ, usually positive anomaly occurred during daytime. However, negative (or positive) anomaly occurred during the nighttime before the Mexico and Bolivia earthquakes. During 10 days after the earthquake, sometimes a negative anomaly detected.</p> 2020-09-01T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Azad Rasul, Luqman W. Omar Calculation of Electron Swarm Parameters in Tetrafluoromethane 2020-09-19T09:51:30+00:00 Idris H. Salih Mohammad M. Othman Sherzad A. Taha <p>The electron swarm parameters and electron energy distribution function (EEDF) are necessary, especially on<br>understanding quantitatively plasma phenomena and ionized gases. The EEDF and electron swarm parameters including the reduce effective ionization coefficient (α-η)/N (α and η are the ionization and attachment coefficient, respectively), electron drift velocity, electron mean energy, characteristic energy, density&nbsp; normalized longitudinal diffusion coefficient, and density normalized electron mobility in tetrafluoromethane (CF4) which was analyzed and calculated using the two-term approximation of the Boltzmann equation method at room temperature, over a range of the reduced electric field strength (E/N) between 0.1 and 1000 Td<br>(1Td=10-17 V.cm2), where E is the electric field and N is the gas density of the gas. The calculations required cross-sections of the electron beam, thus published momentum transfer, vibration, electronic excitation, ionization, and attachment cross-sections for CF4 were used, the results of the Boltzmann equation in a good agreement with experimental and theoretical values over the entire range of E/N. In all cases, negative differential conductivity regions were found. It is found that the calculated EEDF closes to Maxwellian distribution and decreases sharply at low E/N. The low energy part of EEDF flats and the high-energy tail of EEDF increases with increase E/N. The EEDF found to be non-Maxwellian when the E/N&gt; 10Td, having<br>energy variations which reflect electron/molecule energy exchange processes. In addition, limiting field strength (E/N)limit has been calculated from the plots of (α-η)/N, for which the ionization exactly<br>balances the electron attachment, which is valid for the analysis of insulation characteristics and application to power equipment.</p> 2020-09-01T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Idris H. Salih, Mohammad M. Othman, Sherzad A. Taha Mechanical Response of PbSSe, PbSTe Ternary and PbSnSTe Quaternary Alloys at High Pressure 2020-09-03T18:48:35+00:00 Mazin Sh. Othman <p>Property of the semiconductors under high pressure is investigated by the density functional theory and paralleled to the foretelling of the linear elasticity theory. In addition, ternary alloys of&nbsp; PbS<sub>x</sub>Se<sub>1-x</sub> and&nbsp; PbS<sub>x</sub>Te<sub>1-x</sub> lattice matching PbS substrate for x = 0.5 compositions are studied. Furthermore, quaternary alloys Pb<sub>x</sub>Sn<sub>1-x</sub>S<sub>y</sub>Te<sub>1-y</sub> lattice matching PbS substrate for x&nbsp; and y = 0.5 compositions are studied. The six independent elastic parameters (<em>Cij</em>) are also calculated. Meanwhile, the results data are analyzed in high pressure. The mechanical response of all alloys to pressures 0, 50, and 100 kbar increases progress to decrease in (<em>Cij</em>) in separate rates. The rapprochement between the calculated results and the available published data for these alloys demonstrate that they had worthy accordance at zero pressure and the results at high pressure may be required as an acceptable reference.</p> 2020-09-03T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Mazin Sh. Othman Integrating Enterprise Resource Planning with the Organizations’ Management Structure for Decision-Making 2020-10-04T19:57:15+00:00 Diler Atrushi Razwan M. Salah Nawzat S. Ahmed <p>The unstable situation of some countries in Middle East have caused several crises. Many humanitarians Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs) intervene to provide services to the affected groups. Good information management may have an effect on the project’s activities and the accuracy of decisions making, especially for organizations that have limited resource. This paper presents the integration of a Management Information System (MIS) and its' impact in a local organization operating in Duhok City, Kurdistan Region-Iraq (KRI), namely voice of older people and family (VOP Fam). The goal is to increase the quality of humanitarian work through good decision making and data management. Based on the System Usability Scale (SUS) result, the system includes many components as an Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) and is used by the organization staff for managing and organizing their activities. This system is essential to provide knowledge and can bring together the management and the organization’s senior staff members to make decisions, collect the important information, and allow the donors and the staff of the NGO to follow work timely. The importance of the research lies in its contributes to highlighting the positive impact of integrating a computer-based information system (IS) in conducting humanitarian activities of NGOs in KRI. In addition, it will add a level of reliability to the NGO’s activities data and make it trustworthy. This study has concluded that Integrating IS in organizations can help in decision-making based on analyzing the aggregated data, and prepare more accurate reports in a short period.&nbsp;</p> 2020-09-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Diler Atrushi, Razwan Mohmed Salah, Nawzat Sadiq Ahmed Cloud Storage Protection Scheme Based on Fully Homomorphic Encryption 2020-12-12T10:44:00+00:00 Mohammed A. Mohammed Fadhil S. Abed <p>Cloud computing allows enterprises and individuals to have a less physical infrastructure of software and hardware. Nevertheless, there are some concerns regarding privacy protection which may turn out to be a strong barrier. Traditional encryption schemes have been used to encrypt the data before sending them to the cloud. However, the private key has to be provided to the server before any calculations on the data. To solve this security problem, this paper proposes a fully homomorphic encryption scheme for securing cloud data at rest. The scheme is based on prime modular operation, its security depends on factoring multiple large prime numbers (<em>p1, p2,</em>) up to n, which is formed from very large prime numbers up to hundreds of digits as this is an open problem in mathematics. In addition, the elements of the secret key are derived from a series of mathematical operations and the calculation of an Euler coefficient within the modular of integers. Furthermore, it adds the complexity of noise to the plaintext using the number of users of the Cloud Service Provider. Moreover, its randomness is evaluated by the National Institute of Standards and Technology statistical tests, and the results demonstrating that the best statistical performance was obtained with this algorithm.</p> 2020-12-06T18:55:01+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Mohammed Anwar Mohammed, Fadhil Salman Abed Assessment of Curing Exposures Effect on the Long-term Engineering Properties of Novel Lightweight Aggregate Concrete 2020-12-12T10:43:58+00:00 Mohammad H. Jannaty Dawood Atrushi <p>At present, most of the generated waste expanded polystyrene (EPS) in developed countries are transported to landfill and in some developing and/or less-developed countries such as Iraq are sent to open landscapes; consequently, this inadequate waste disposal can be very dangerous to our health and environment. This study describes engineering properties of sustainable lightweight aggregate concrete (LWAC) incorporating novel aggregates of waste EPS produced by a unique recycling technique of densifying. The new recycling technique significantly improved the segregation resistance of EPS beads in concrete as these beads are ultra-light material. The novel LWA of densified EPS (DEPS) was used as partial natural aggregate replacement in the mixes. Three water/cement (W/C) ratios were used. Three different types of curing conditions of indoor full water curing, outdoor weathering exposure, and heating exposure were employed during this study to represent different conditions which concrete may be subject to. The engineering properties of concrete investigated were consistency, dry density, compressive strength, and ultrasonic pulse velocity (UPV) for long-term performance of more than one-year age. It was indicated that the properties of concrete were not only primarily influenced by the employed curing conditions but the content of DEPS in the mixtures and additionally the W/C ratio had effect on the properties of concrete. However, adequate engineering properties can be achieved using an appropriate amount of DEPS with proper W/C and curing conditions.</p> 2020-12-06T19:01:06+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Dawood Atrushi Influence of Natural Fibers on the Performance of Hot Mix Asphalt for the Wearing Course of Pavement 2020-12-12T10:43:56+00:00 Omar T. Mahmood Sheelan A. Ahmed <p>Cracking in the flexible pavement is a serious problem that reduces the service life of the roads pavement unless they are treated with great care. Since flexible pavement is very weaker in tension than in compression, it is usually necessary to consider the tensile stresses and some type of additives to improve asphalt<br>pavement performance, and one of the most effective ways of improving asphalt pavement performance is to reinforce asphalt mixtures by incorporating natural fibers. The main objective of this study is to use palm fiber, which is locally available, in hot mix asphalt mixtures. To achieve this objective, the Marshall test and indirect tensile strength test were conducted on four asphalt mixtures with different types of natural fibers (Coconut, Corn, Palm, and Sisal), added in varying percentages 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4, and 0.5% and different lengths of fiber 0.5, 1, 1.5, and 2 cm. Based on the analyzed results, it can be concluded that the use of palm fiber increased the Marshall stability by 20% as compared with the conventional mixture and raised up the retained tensile strength ratio up to 92%. Finally, the use of 0.2% content of natural fiber at 1.5 cm length gave a better performance for the mixtures.</p> 2020-12-07T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Omar T. Mahmood, Sheelan A. Ahmed Bacterial Profile and Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Isolates Recovered from Lower Respiratory Tract Infection for Patients in Rizgary Hospital, Erbil 2020-12-12T10:43:54+00:00 Mahmoud A. Chawsheen Ahmed A. Al-Naqshbandi Haval H. Abdulqader <p>Recognition of etiologies of lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI) may help in delivering effective treatment options and circumvent emergence of antibiotic resistance. This study was carried out to uncover bacterial profile and antibiotic sensitivity patterns among 310 LRTI patients attended Rizagary Hospital between January 2014 to December 2016. Standard laboratory techniques were applied in collecting, processing, and culturing sputum and bronchial wash specimens. VITEK® 2 compact systems were used to identify bacteria and their antibiotic sensitivity patterns. Results showed that <em>Streptococcus parasanguinis</em> and <em>Acinetobacter baumannii</em> were the most abundant gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria (GPB &amp; GNB), respectively, isolated from sputum specimens. From bronchial wash specimens, only GNB were detected and <em>Serratia marcescens</em> was the most abundant one. Antibiotic sensitivity tests revealed that <em>Streptococcus parasanguinis</em> was the most resistant GPB and <em>Acinetobacter baumannii</em> was the most resistant GNB. Sputum recovered GPB were highly resistant to Ampicillin, Erythromycin, Levofloxacin, Trimethoprim/Sulfamethoxazole, and Tetracycline. Bronchial wash recovered GNB were highly resistant to Ampicillin, Minocycline, Pefloxacin, Piperacillin, and Ticarcillin. In conclusion, LRTIs are mainly associated with GNB rather than GPB. The recovered <em>Streptococcus parasanguinis</em> and <em>Acinetobacter baumannii</em> were found to be multidrug-resistant pathogens. Ampicillin was ineffective against any of recovered pathogenic bacteria.</p> 2020-12-07T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Mahmoud A. Chawsheen, Ahmed A. Al-Naqshbandi, Haval H. Abdulqader An Area-efficient Microstrip Diplexer with a Novel Structure and Low Group Delay for Microwave Wireless Applications 2020-12-21T08:28:50+00:00 Salah I. Yahya Abbas Rezaei <p>In this work, a novel structure of a microstrip diplexer consisting of coupled patch cells is presented. It works at 2.5 GHz and 4.7 GHz for wireless applications. The proposed structure is well miniaturized with a compact area of 0.015 λ<sub>g</sub><sup>2</sup>, fabricated on 0.787 mm substrate height. It has two wide fractional bandwidths (FBWs) of 28% and 17.9% at the lower and upper channels, respectively. Another feature of the proposed design is the low group delays, which are better than 0.4 ns for both channels. Moreover, the designed diplexer can suppress the harmonics up to 10 GHz. Meanwhile, the insertion losses at both channels are low. The design method is based on proposing an approximated equivalent <em>LC</em> circuit of a novel basic resonator. The information about the resonator behavior is extracted from the even and odd modes analysis of the proposed equivalent <em>LC</em> circuit. Finally, our introduced diplexer is fabricated and measured to verify the simulation results, where the simulated and measured results are in good agreement.</p> 2020-12-17T19:43:29+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Salah I. Yahya, Abbas Rezaei The Effects of Amine Type and Lean Amine Temperature on Gas Sweetening Processes 2020-12-19T12:21:28+00:00 Ribwar K. Abdulrahman Mohammed H. S. Zangana <p>In the North Gas Company (NGC) in Kirkuk, Iraq, sour gas stream is loaded with considerable amounts of H<sub>2</sub>S and CO<sub>2</sub> of 2.95% and 2.54%, respectively. A DEA amine system is currently used to reduce these sour component concentrations below 5 ppm and 2% for H<sub>2</sub>S and CO<sub>2</sub>, respectively. This study used Bryan Research and Engineering’s ProMax® process simulation software to optimize this amine sweetening system by adopting other amine types and blends, such as methyldiethanolamine (MDEA). It could be argued that a 50 wt% MDEA solution circulated at 414 m3/h was determined to be the optimum operating conditions. This design met sweet gas specifications and minimized the reboiler duty to 38 MW, 30.9% reduction in steam consumption. The experimental simulation work is also examined the effects of lean solvent temperature on the gas sweetening process efficiency and performance and find out that the lean amine temperature within the range of 43–48°C in all sceneries give acceptable sweetening results.</p> 2020-12-19T12:20:31+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Ribwar K. Abdulrahman, Mohammed H. S. Zangana New Fluorescence Quenching Approach for Determination of Valsartan in Certain Tablets and Spiked Biological Fluids 2020-12-28T17:47:19+00:00 Layth I. Abd Ali <p>A new, simple, selective, sensitive, fast, economical, and reliable fluorescence quenching method for the quantitation of valsartan was investigated using basic fuchsin act as a fluorometric dye. The method was depended on the detection quenching influence of valsartan on the fluorescence intensity of basic fuchsin and the reaction between valsartan and basic fuchsin in a McIlvaine buffer medium at pH = 6 to yield a new basic fuchsin–valsartan non-fluorescent complex. The excitation and emission of basic fuchsin fluorescence signal were identified at 535 and 728 nm, respectively. A fluorescence quenching value (ΔF) displayed a very good linear relationship (R<sup>2</sup> = 0.9992) with valsartan concentration ranging from 0.003 to 3 μg/mL, a detection limit as low as 0.0009 μg/mL with a high precision and accuracy (RSD% &lt;3). Significantly, no interference effect was found due to the presence of other ingredients commonly found in medical formulations. The acquired data were statistically compared with those acquired from reported chromatographic method and were observed to be in excellent agreement at a 95% confidence level; the planned fluorescence quenching procedure was subsequently utilized to detected the concentration of valsartan in spiked biological fluids&nbsp;and commercial medical tablets.</p> 2020-12-28T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Layth I. Abd Ali