ARO-THE SCIENTIFIC JOURNAL OF KOYA UNIVERSITY http://aro.koyauniversity.org/index.php/aro <p>ARO, which means "Today" in Hewramí Kurdish, is a distinguished scientific journal published by Koya University. It is an open access journal with an electronic ISSN (e-ISSN) of 2307-549X, a print ISSN (p-ISSN) of 2410-9355, and a Digital Object Identifier (DOI) of 10.14500/2307-549X. ARO encompasses a wide range of scholarly contributions, including research articles, review articles, and letters to the editor.</p> <p>As a peer-reviewed publication, ARO upholds the highest standards of academic rigour and integrity. It provides a platform for researchers in the fields of Science and Engineering to share their original works and advance knowledge in their respective disciplines. ARO has gained recognition and credibility in the academic community, as evidenced by its inclusion in the Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ) and the receipt of the DOAJ Seal.</p> <p>Furthermore, ARO has achieved an Impact Factor of 0.6, as announced in June 2023. This noteworthy accomplishment signifies the journal's influence and the significance of the research it publishes. The Impact Factor is a testament to the quality and impact of ARO's articles within the scholarly community.</p> <p>In addition, ARO has been accepted for indexing in the Emerging Sources Citation Index (ESCI), a prestigious edition of Web of Science™ by Clarivate Analytics. This recognition further establishes ARO as a reputable journal and highlights its contributions to scholarly discourse. Since February 2016, ARO has been listed in the ESCI, enabling researchers to access and cite its published articles through the Web of Science platform.</p> <p>ARO serves as a valuable resource for academics, scientists, and researchers, offering a diverse range of high-quality publications that contribute to the advancement of scientific knowledge.</p> Koya University en-US ARO-THE SCIENTIFIC JOURNAL OF KOYA UNIVERSITY 2410-9355 <p>Authors who choose to publish their work with Aro agree to the following terms:</p> <ul> <li> <p>Authors retain the copyright to their work and grant the journal the right of first publication. The work is simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License [CC BY-NC-SA 4.0]. This license allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.</p> </li> <li> <p>Authors have the freedom to enter into separate agreements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work. This includes options such as posting it to an institutional repository or publishing it in a book, as long as proper acknowledgement is given to its initial publication in this journal.</p> </li> <li> <p>Authors are encouraged to share and post their work online, including in institutional repositories or on their personal websites, both prior to and during the submission process. This practice can lead to productive exchanges and increase the visibility and citation of the published work.</p> </li> </ul> <p>By agreeing to these terms, authors acknowledge the importance of open access and the benefits it brings to the scholarly community.</p> Structural Characterization of Salts Using X-ray Fluorescence Technique http://aro.koyauniversity.org/index.php/aro/article/view/1418 <p>This study investigates the structure of 21 table salts that were collected from different local markets in the Kurdistan region of Iraq. The major trace elements and iodine concentrations in tablesalt are analyzed through the X-ray fluorescence (XRF) technique and the titration method, respectively. The study shows that using XRF spectral analysis, the collected table salt samples are rich in chlorine, sodium, and contain a lower percentage of bromine, strontium, tin, tellurium, and iodine. Moreover, these samples have a high percentage of sulfur and sirconium, where the molybdenum is &gt;0.2%. Other elements such as zinc and copper are essential and found in low concentrations &lt;0.0086% and 0.001%. Iodine is a trace element that is necessary nutrients for human life, and it is naturally present in some foods. Iodine deficiency is brought on by a lack of iodine consumption. Iodized salt is highly recommended as a source of iodine to prevent iodine deficiency disease. Iodine is added to table salt in two different ways, either through iodate or through iodine. The results show that only 25% of the salt samples have an adequate level of iodine, while the other samples have low or no iodine content. According to the World Health Organization, quality of salt depends on iodine concentration and other trace elements, which are necessary for human health.</p> Bashdar I. Meena Hawbash H. Karim Kurdistan F. Aziz Faten A. Chaqmaqchee Dashne M. Kokhasmail Khabat N. Hussein Copyright (c) 2024 Bashdar I. Meena, Hawbash H. Karim, Kurdistan F. Aziz, Faten A. Chaqmaqchee, Dashne M. Kokhasmail , Khabat N. Hussein https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0 2024-01-06 2024-01-06 12 1 1 7 10.14500/aro.11418 Synthesis of Some novel Azomethine Oxide Derived from Aromatic Oximes and their Anti-microbial Studies http://aro.koyauniversity.org/index.php/aro/article/view/1471 <p>The organic compound category known as azomethine oxides has garnered significant attention due to its potential for bioactive and pharmacological effects, as well as its role in organic syntheses.&nbsp; Existing literature offers various methods for producing derivatives of these compounds.&nbsp; This study, in particular, concentrates on the creation of several aromatic oximes through the reduction of corresponding aldehydes. Furthermore, these oximes are employed in the generation of new azomethine oxides through a condensation reaction with selected aldehydes.&nbsp; The molecular structure of the synthesized azomethine oxides is determined using techniques such as Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, <sup>1</sup>H-NMR,&nbsp; and&nbsp; <sup>13</sup>C-NMR.&nbsp; Finally, the antimicrobial effectiveness of these compounds was assessed against Escherichia coli (gram-negative bacteria), <em>Staphylococcus aureus</em> (gram-positive bacteria), and <em>Candida albicans</em> (fungus). The synthesized compounds were obtained with high purity and yielded excellent results. Furthermore, the data demonstrates that these azomethine oxides exhibit significant antimicrobial activity when compared to standard drugs.</p> Jihad H. Mohammed Akram N. M. Qaddo Nabaz A. Muhammad Salih Faeza B. Omar Copyright (c) 2024 Jihad H. Mohammed, Akram N. Qaddo, Nabaz A. Muhammad , Faeza B. Omar https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0 2024-02-15 2024-02-15 12 1 13 18 10.14500/aro.11471 An Innovative Embedded Processor-Based Signal Phase Shifter Algorithm http://aro.koyauniversity.org/index.php/aro/article/view/1358 <p>Digital filtration is widely used today in many&nbsp;application fields, and with the increased use of low-cost embedded processors, it can be applied to vast areas. A&nbsp;drawback of digital&nbsp;filtration algorithms is the introduction of phase angle shifts in&nbsp;the filtered signals, thereby creating undesirable characteristics&nbsp;in many application fields. In this work, low-pass filters of finite&nbsp;impulse response and infinite impulse response types are designed&nbsp;with an innovative buffering scheme to delay a digitally low-passed&nbsp;signal by an angle ranging from 0° to 180° for real-time signals. The&nbsp;application of the filtration and buffering scheme on a cost-effective&nbsp;embedded processor with limited signal processing capabilities&nbsp;opens the horizons for its applicability in many signal processing&nbsp;fields. In assessing its practicality, the generated filtered output&nbsp;signal is correlated with the original signal (a low-passed version),&nbsp;revealing correlation values reaching 0.99 in certain instances.&nbsp;The novelty of the proposed approach enables its application to a&nbsp;broad-spectrum area of digital signal filtration.</p> Aven R. Hamza Mohammed A. Hussein Copyright (c) 2024 Aven R. Hamza, Mohammed A. Hussein https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0 2024-02-15 2024-02-15 12 1 19 28 10.14500/aro.11358 Web Page Ranking Based on Text Content and Link Information Using Data Mining Techniques http://aro.koyauniversity.org/index.php/aro/article/view/1397 <p>Thanks to the rapid expansion of the Internet, anyone can now access a vast array of information online. However, as the volume of web content continues to grow exponentially, search engines face challenges in delivering relevant results. Early search engines primarily relied on the words or phrases found within web pages to index and rank them. While this approach had its merits, it often resulted in irrelevant or inaccurate results. To address this issue, more advanced search engines began incorporating the hyperlink structures of web pages to help determine their relevance. While this method improved retrieval accuracy to some extent, it still had limitations, as it did not consider the actual content of web pages. The objective of the work is to enhance Web Information Retrieval methods by leveraging three key components: text content analysis, link analysis, and log file analysis. By integrating insights from these multiple data sources, the goal is to achieve a more accurate and effective ranking of relevant web pages in the retrieved document set, ultimately enhancing the user experience&nbsp;and delivering more precise search results the proposed system was&nbsp;tested with both multi-word and single-word queries, and the results&nbsp;were evaluated using metrics such as relative recall, precision, and&nbsp;F-measure. When compared to Google’s PageRank algorithm, the&nbsp;proposed system demonstrated superior performance, achieving&nbsp;an 81% mean average precision, 56% average relative recall, and&nbsp;a 66% F-measure.</p> Esraa Q. Naamha Matheel E. Abdulmunim Copyright (c) 2024 Esraa Q. Naamha, Matheel E. Abdulmunim https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0 2024-02-16 2024-02-16 12 1 29 40 10.14500/aro.11397 An Ensemble Model for Detection of Adverse Drug Reactions http://aro.koyauniversity.org/index.php/aro/article/view/1403 <p>The detection of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) plays a necessary role in comprehending the safety and benefit profiles of medicines. Although spontaneous reporting stays the standard approach for ADR documents, it suffers from significant under reporting rates and limitations in terms of treatment inspection. This study proposes an ensemble model that combines decision trees, support vector machines, random forests, and adaptive boosting (ADA-boost) to improve ADR detection. The experimental evaluation applied the benchmark data set and many preprocessing techniques such as tokenization, stop-word removal, stemming, and utilization of Point-wise Mutual Information. In addition, two term representations, namely, term frequency-inverse document frequency and term frequency, are utilized. The proposed ensemble model achieves an F-measure of 89% on the dataset. The proposed ensemble model shows its ability in detecting ADR to be a favored option in achieving both accuracy and clarity.</p> Ahmed A. Nafea Mustafa S. Ibrahim Abdulrahman A. Mukhlif Mohammed M. AL-Ani Nazlia Omar Copyright (c) 2024 Ahmed A. Nafea, Mustafa S. Ibrahim, Abdulrahman A. Mukhlif, Mohammed M. AL-Ani , Nazlia Omar https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0 2024-02-20 2024-02-20 12 1 41 47 10.14500/aro.11403 Glucuronidase Gene http://aro.koyauniversity.org/index.php/aro/article/view/1239 <p><em>Gluconacetobacter</em> <em>diazotrophicus</em>&nbsp;lives inside plant&nbsp;tissue cells in the form of colonies and excretes about half of the fixed&nbsp;nitrogen, which offers potential power that improves plant growth.&nbsp;The aim of this study is to find the interaction of glucuronidase (GUS)-labeled G. diazotrophicus&nbsp;with spinach seedlings and the detection&nbsp;of&nbsp;GUS&nbsp;genes using X-gluc dye (5-bromo-4-chloro-3-indolyl-β-D-&nbsp;glucuronic acid). The GUS protocol is used to detect GUS-labeled&nbsp;G. diazotrophicus&nbsp;in spinach seedling tissues by chemical detection&nbsp;using X-gluc dye. The results show that the spinach seedlings are&nbsp;successfully infected with GUS-labeled&nbsp;G. diazotrophicus&nbsp;, with the&nbsp;survival of the seedlings throughout their growth period and an&nbsp;improvement in the growth of pollinated seedlings. The outcomes&nbsp;of the microscopic inspection of the root slices reveal the presence&nbsp;of bacterial cells at the root tips and their concentration in the area&nbsp;of the cell walls of the peripheral cells. Furthermore, the findings&nbsp;of microscopic examinations of longitudinal sections for cotyledons&nbsp;show the presence of a number of bacteria within epidermal cell&nbsp;walls. This indicates that the determinants of the interaction between&nbsp;these bacteria and spinach seedlings are suitable for the expression&nbsp;of the gene responsible for the formation of the nitrogenase enzyme.</p> Hikmat M. Masyab Qutaiba S. Al-Nema Mozahim Q. Al-Mallah Copyright (c) 2024 Hikmat M. Masyab, Qutaiba S. Al-Nema, Mozahim Q. Al-Mallah https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0 2024-01-08 2024-01-08 12 1 8 12 10.14500/aro.11239