ARO-THE SCIENTIFIC JOURNAL OF KOYA UNIVERSITY <p>ARO (Today in Hewramí Kurdish) is a&nbsp;scientific&nbsp;journal published by Koya University with&nbsp;e-ISSN: 2307-549X, p-ISSN: 2410-9355, and DOI: 10.14500/2307-549X.&nbsp;ARO is a journal of research articles, review articles, and letters to editor. ARO is a peer-reviewed, open access journal that publishes original works in areas of Science and Engineering. ARO has been indexed by <a href="">DOAJ</a> and got <a href="">DOAJ Seal</a>. ARO has been accepted for indexing in the Emerging Sources Citation Index (ESCI), a new edition of Web of Science™ - <a href=";Word=aro" target="_self">Clarivate&nbsp;Analytics</a> (Thomson Reuters)&nbsp;since Feb 2016.</p> Koya University en-US ARO-THE SCIENTIFIC JOURNAL OF KOYA UNIVERSITY 2410-9355 <p>Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:</p> <ol type="a"> <li class="show">Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a&nbsp;Creative Commons Attribution License [<a href="">CC BY-NC-SA 4.0</a>]&nbsp;that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.</li> <li class="show">Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.</li> <li class="show">Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See&nbsp;<a href="" target="_new">The Effect of Open Access</a>).</li> </ol> Extraction and Determination of Oxymatrine Pesticide in Environmental Sample and in its Formulation using High-Performance Liquid Chromatography <p>The quinolizindine alkaloid compound, oxymatrine pesticide, was analysis in the river water samples collected from different agriculture areas in the Iraqi city of Kerbala and also in its formulation using developed reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography method. Acetonitrile:methanol (60:40 v/v) was chosen as mobile phase at pH (7.0), flow rate 0.5 mL/min, and 20 µL as volume injection. Modified ecological-friendly method, dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction, was used for the extraction of oxymatrine from water samples. Linearity study was constructed from 0.1 to 70 μg/mL at λmax 205 nm. The limit of detection and limit of quantification were 0.025 and 0.082 μg/mL, respectively, and the relative standard deviation (RSD) % was 0.518%. Three spiked levels of concentration (20.0, 40.0, and 70.0 μg/mL) were used for the validation method. The percentage recovery for the three spiked samples was ranged between 98.743 and 99.432 and the RSD% was between 0.051 and 0.202%, the formulation studies of oxymatrine between 99.487 and 99.798, and the RSD% was ranged from 0.045 to 0.057%. The developed method can be used accurately and selectively for the determination of oxymatrine in environmental samples and in the formulation.</p> Ihsan M. Shaheed Saadiyah A. Dhahir Copyright (c) 2020 Ihsan M. Shaheed, Saadiyah A. Dhahir 2020-09-01 2020-09-01 8 2 1 7 10.14500/aro.10666 Spectrophotometric Indirect Determination of Captopril through Redox Reaction with n-bromosuccinimide and RB dye in Pharmaceutical Products <p>A simple, accurate, and sensitive method for the spectrophotometric determination of captopril in bulk and dosage forms is reported. The method is based on the bromination of captopril with excess solution of n-bromosuccinimide (NBS) in HCl acid medium. The excess NBS is pursued by the assessment of the residual NBS based on its ability to bleach the rhodamine B dye and measuring the absorbance at 555 nm. The amount of NBS reacted coincides to the drug content. The different experimental parameters influencing the development and stability of the color are precisely studied and optimized. Beer’s law is valid within a concentration range of 0.3–1.0 μg/mL with a correlation coefficient R2 = 0.991. The limit of detection 0.169 μg/mL is attained and relative standard deviation values for five replicated measurements of 0.3, 0.7, and 1.0 μg/mL captopril were between 0.53% and 2.03%. No interference is detected from prevalent additives found in pharmaceutical preparations. The proposed method is profitably put on to the determination of captopril in the tablet formulations with mean recoveries 98.91–101.27% and the results were statistically confronted with those of a reference method by applying Student’s t-and F-test.</p> Dashne M. Kokhasmail Tara F. Tahir Kurdistan F. Azeez Copyright (c) 2020 Tara F. Tahir, Dashne M. Kokhasmail, Kurdistan F. Azeez 2020-09-01 2020-09-01 8 2 8 14 10.14500/aro.10662 Land Surface Temperature Anomalies Detection for the Strong Earthquakes in 2018 <p>Earthquake every year leads to human and material losses and unpredictability of it by now makes this natural disaster worsen. The objective of the current study was to determine the anomalies in land surface temperature (LST) in areas affected by earthquakes. In this research, three earthquakes (M &gt;6) were studied. Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer Aqua and Terra day and night LST data used from 2003 to 2018. The interquartile range (IQR) and mean ± 2σ methods utilized to select anomalies. As a result, based on the IQR method, no prior and after anomaly detected in selected cases and data. Based on mean ± 2σ, usually positive anomaly occurred during daytime. However, negative (or positive) anomaly occurred during the nighttime before the Mexico and Bolivia earthquakes. During 10 days after the earthquake, sometimes a negative anomaly detected.</p> Azad Rasul Luqman W. Omar Copyright (c) 2020 Azad Rasul, Luqman W. Omar 2020-09-01 2020-09-01 8 2 15 21 10.14500/aro.10591 Calculation of Electron Swarm Parameters in Tetrafluoromethane <p>The electron swarm parameters and electron energy distribution function (EEDF) are necessary, especially on<br>understanding quantitatively plasma phenomena and ionized gases. The EEDF and electron swarm parameters including the reduce effective ionization coefficient (α-η)/N (α and η are the ionization and attachment coefficient, respectively), electron drift velocity, electron mean energy, characteristic energy, density&nbsp; normalized longitudinal diffusion coefficient, and density normalized electron mobility in tetrafluoromethane (CF4) which was analyzed and calculated using the two-term approximation of the Boltzmann equation method at room temperature, over a range of the reduced electric field strength (E/N) between 0.1 and 1000 Td<br>(1Td=10-17 V.cm2), where E is the electric field and N is the gas density of the gas. The calculations required cross-sections of the electron beam, thus published momentum transfer, vibration, electronic excitation, ionization, and attachment cross-sections for CF4 were used, the results of the Boltzmann equation in a good agreement with experimental and theoretical values over the entire range of E/N. In all cases, negative differential conductivity regions were found. It is found that the calculated EEDF closes to Maxwellian distribution and decreases sharply at low E/N. The low energy part of EEDF flats and the high-energy tail of EEDF increases with increase E/N. The EEDF found to be non-Maxwellian when the E/N&gt; 10Td, having<br>energy variations which reflect electron/molecule energy exchange processes. In addition, limiting field strength (E/N)limit has been calculated from the plots of (α-η)/N, for which the ionization exactly<br>balances the electron attachment, which is valid for the analysis of insulation characteristics and application to power equipment.</p> Idris H. Salih Mohammad M. Othman Sherzad A. Taha Copyright (c) 2020 Idris H. Salih, Mohammad M. Othman, Sherzad A. Taha 2020-09-01 2020-09-01 8 2 22 28 10.14500/aro.10671 Mechanical Response of PbSSe, PbSTe Ternary and PbSnSTe Quaternary Alloys at High Pressure <p>Property of the semiconductors under high pressure is investigated by the density functional theory and paralleled to the foretelling of the linear elasticity theory. In addition, ternary alloys of&nbsp; PbS<sub>x</sub>Se<sub>1-x</sub> and&nbsp; PbS<sub>x</sub>Te<sub>1-x</sub> lattice matching PbS substrate for x = 0.5 compositions are studied. Furthermore, quaternary alloys Pb<sub>x</sub>Sn<sub>1-x</sub>S<sub>y</sub>Te<sub>1-y</sub> lattice matching PbS substrate for x&nbsp; and y = 0.5 compositions are studied. The six independent elastic parameters (<em>Cij</em>) are also calculated. Meanwhile, the results data are analyzed in high pressure. The mechanical response of all alloys to pressures 0, 50, and 100 kbar increases progress to decrease in (<em>Cij</em>) in separate rates. The rapprochement between the calculated results and the available published data for these alloys demonstrate that they had worthy accordance at zero pressure and the results at high pressure may be required as an acceptable reference.</p> Mazin Sh. Othman Copyright (c) 2020 Mazin Sh. Othman 2020-09-03 2020-09-03 8 2 29 33 10.14500/aro.10681 Integrating Enterprise Resource Planning with the Organizations’ Management Structure for Decision-Making <p>The unstable situation of some countries in Middle East have caused several crises. Many humanitarians Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs) intervene to provide services to the affected groups. Good information management may have an effect on the project’s activities and the accuracy of decisions making, especially for organizations that have limited resource. This paper presents the integration of a Management Information System (MIS) and its' impact in a local organization operating in Duhok City, Kurdistan Region-Iraq (KRI), namely voice of older people and family (VOP Fam). The goal is to increase the quality of humanitarian work through good decision making and data management. Based on the System Usability Scale (SUS) result, the system includes many components as an Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) and is used by the organization staff for managing and organizing their activities. This system is essential to provide knowledge and can bring together the management and the organization’s senior staff members to make decisions, collect the important information, and allow the donors and the staff of the NGO to follow work timely. The importance of the research lies in its contributes to highlighting the positive impact of integrating a computer-based information system (IS) in conducting humanitarian activities of NGOs in KRI. In addition, it will add a level of reliability to the NGO’s activities data and make it trustworthy. This study has concluded that Integrating IS in organizations can help in decision-making based on analyzing the aggregated data, and prepare more accurate reports in a short period.&nbsp;</p> Diler Atrushi Razwan M. Salah Nawzat S. Ahmed Copyright (c) 2020 Diler Atrushi, Razwan Mohmed Salah, Nawzat Sadiq Ahmed 2020-09-30 2020-09-30 8 2 34 39 10.14500/aro.10649