ARO-THE SCIENTIFIC JOURNAL OF KOYA UNIVERSITY <p>ARO, which means "Today" in Hewramí Kurdish, is a distinguished scientific journal published by Koya University. It is an open access journal with an electronic ISSN (e-ISSN) of 2307-549X, a print ISSN (p-ISSN) of 2410-9355, and a Digital Object Identifier (DOI) of 10.14500/2307-549X. ARO encompasses a wide range of scholarly contributions, including research articles, review articles, and letters to the editor.</p> <p>As a peer-reviewed publication, ARO upholds the highest standards of academic rigour and integrity. It provides a platform for researchers in the fields of Science and Engineering to share their original works and advance knowledge in their respective disciplines. ARO has gained recognition and credibility in the academic community, as evidenced by its inclusion in the Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ) and the receipt of the DOAJ Seal.</p> <p>Furthermore, ARO has achieved an Impact Factor of 0.6, as announced in June 2023. This noteworthy accomplishment signifies the journal's influence and the significance of the research it publishes. The Impact Factor is a testament to the quality and impact of ARO's articles within the scholarly community.</p> <p>In addition, ARO has been accepted for indexing in the Emerging Sources Citation Index (ESCI), a prestigious edition of Web of Science™ by Clarivate Analytics. This recognition further establishes ARO as a reputable journal and highlights its contributions to scholarly discourse. Since February 2016, ARO has been listed in the ESCI, enabling researchers to access and cite its published articles through the Web of Science platform.</p> <p>ARO serves as a valuable resource for academics, scientists, and researchers, offering a diverse range of high-quality publications that contribute to the advancement of scientific knowledge.</p> Koya University en-US ARO-THE SCIENTIFIC JOURNAL OF KOYA UNIVERSITY 2410-9355 <p>Authors who choose to publish their work with Aro agree to the following terms:</p> <ul> <li> <p>Authors retain the copyright to their work and grant the journal the right of first publication. The work is simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License [CC BY-NC-SA 4.0]. This license allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.</p> </li> <li> <p>Authors have the freedom to enter into separate agreements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work. This includes options such as posting it to an institutional repository or publishing it in a book, as long as proper acknowledgement is given to its initial publication in this journal.</p> </li> <li> <p>Authors are encouraged to share and post their work online, including in institutional repositories or on their personal websites, both prior to and during the submission process. This practice can lead to productive exchanges and increase the visibility and citation of the published work.</p> </li> </ul> <p>By agreeing to these terms, authors acknowledge the importance of open access and the benefits it brings to the scholarly community.</p> Immunological Role of Megakaryocytes and Platelets during Influenza A Virus Infection <p>Influenza viruses pose a serious threat to public health, with severe cases often characterized by lung damage and inflammation. However, the underlying mechanisms of these processes remain poorly understood. This study aimed to investigate the essential role of megakaryocytes (MKs) and platelets (PLTs) in influenza A virus (IAV) infections. Conducted at the Department of Rare Respiratory Diseases, Cystic Fibrosis, and Pulmonology, Nord University Hospital, Marseille, France, the study collected seventy blood samples between October 2018 and March 2019. Samples were obtained from healthy individuals and patients diagnosed with IAV. Messenger RNA was extracted from isolated PLTs and subjected to quantitative real-time-polymerase chain reaction using sets of primers targeting immune marker genes. Western blot analysis was also performed for confirmation, focusing on Fas Ligand (FasL). Results showed that PLTs from IAV-infected individuals expressed the FasL, tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand, and Granulysin (GNLY) receptors when activated. Furthermore, an in vitro assay revealed the presence of FasL receptors on infected CMK cell lines. In vivo investigations demonstrated that activated MKs and PLTs in mice also expressed FasL. Interestingly, none of the immune receptors under investigation were found in both MKs and PLTs in mouse model studies. In conclusion, MKs and PLTs play a significant role in influencing immune responses that may help prevent viral spread during infection. However, further examination of their mechanisms of action is warranted. Understanding the involvement of these cells in influenza pathogenesis could offer valuable insights for developing potential therapeutic strategies.</p> Fryad M. Rahman Copyright (c) 2023 Fryad M. Rahman 2023-08-25 2023-08-25 11 2 1 16 10.14500/aro.11197 A Compact Negative Group Delay Microstrip Diplexer with Low Losses for 5G Applications <p>Microstrip Diplexers play an important role in modern wireless communication systems. In this paper, a novel compact microstrip diplexer based on spiral cells is presented. The proposed resonator primarily consists of two spiral thin lines connected to a pair of coupled lines. This novel resonator is analyzed mathematically to find its behavior and tune the dimensions of the final layout easily. Using the analyzed resonator, two bandpass filters (BPFs) are designed. Then, a novel high-performance microstrip diplexer is obtained by designing and integrating these two BPFs. The center frequencies of the first and second channels of the proposed diplexer are 1.86 GHz and 4.62 GHz, respectively. The proposed diplexer boasts a remarkably small size of 0.004 λ<sub>g</sub><sup>2</sup> and features flat channels with low insertion losses of only 0.048 dB and 0.065 dB for the first and second channels, respectively. The maximum group delays of <em>S</em><sub>21</sub> and <em>S</em><sub>31</sub> are 0.31 ns, 0.86 ns, respectively, which are good values for a modern communication system. Meanwhile, inside its passbands for some frequency ranges, its group delays are negative. Thus, using this diplexer can decrease the signal dispersion. The 1<sup>st</sup> and 2<sup>nd</sup> passbands are wide with 47.3% and 47.1% fractional bandwidths (FBW), respectively. Therefore, this diplexer can be easily and successfully used in designing high-performance RF communication systems.</p> Leila Nouri Salah I. Yahya Abbas Rezaei Fawwaz A. Hazzazi Binh N. Nhu Copyright (c) 2023 Leila Nouri, Salah I. Yahya, Abbas Rezaei, Fawwaz A. Hazzazi , Binh N. Nhu 2023-08-25 2023-08-25 11 2 17 24 10.14500/aro.11237 Screening of Aflatoxin Production by Aspergillus flavus Isolates from Petroleum-contaminated Soil <p>Fungi are eukaryotic, heterogeneous, unicellular to filamentous, spore-bearing, and chemoorganotrophic organisms which lack chlorophyll. This present study was carried out to isolate and identify fungi from petroleum-contaminated soil. Several fungal genera which included Rhizopus spp., Mucor spp., Penicillium spp., Rhizoctonia spp., Aspergillus spp., Alternaria spp., and Cladosporiumspp. were isolated using potatoes dextrose agar, Czapek-Dox Agar, and Aspergillus flavus Differentiation Agar culture media that comparable with co-amoxiclav (1g) and chloramphenicol to prevent the growth of any bacteria. The direct plate and serial dilution agar plate methods were used for the isolation of fungi. Based on results, Aspergillusand Mucor spp. were the most predominant genera and had the highest number of colonies in the soil samples. In this investigation, seven out of 27 soil samples were morphologically (macroscopically and microscopically) identified, such as A. flavus. Aflatoxigenicity of A. flavus was detected using characteristics in Aspergillus differentiation agar and colony fluorescence on exposure to ultraviolet light. Moreover, molecular approaches were used for the detection of aflatoxigenic of the A. flavus isolates. Three structural (aflD, aflO, and aflP) and one regulatory (aflR) gene of the aflatoxin gene cluster of A. flavus were targeted for amplification by the polymerase chain reaction method. The aflatoxigenic of all six A. flavus isolates was detected molecularly which contained two structural (aflD, aflP)genes out of three structural genes, while there was no specific amplification of the aflO gene in the fourth, fifth, and sixth A. flavus which issimilar to the aflR gene in the first and second A. flavus.</p> Sawan M. Mirkhan Taha J. Omar Copyright (c) 2023 Sawan M. Mirkhan, Taha J. Omar 2023-08-25 2023-08-25 11 2 25 30 10.14500/aro.11144 Audio Encryption Framework Using the Laplace Transformation <div>Digital information, especially multimedia and&nbsp;its applications, has grown exponentially in recent years. It is&nbsp;important to strengthen sophisticated encryption algorithms due&nbsp;to the security needs of these innovative systems. The security of&nbsp;real-time audio applications is ensured in the present study through&nbsp;a framework for encryption. The design framework protects the&nbsp;confidentiality and integrity of voice communications by encrypting&nbsp;audio applications. A&nbsp;modern method of securing communication&nbsp;and protecting data is cryptography. Using cryptography is one of&nbsp;the most important techniques for protecting data and ensuring the security of messaging. The main purpose of this paper is to&nbsp;present a novel encryption scheme that can be used in real-time&nbsp;audio applications. We encrypt the sound using a combination of&nbsp;an infinite series of hyperbolic functions and the Laplace transform,&nbsp;and then decrypt it using the inverse Laplace transform. The&nbsp;modular arithmetic rules are used to generate the key for the&nbsp;coefficients acquired from the transformation. There is no loss of&nbsp;data or noise in the decryption sound. We also put several sound&nbsp;examples to the test</div> Mardan A. Pirdawood Shadman R. Kareem Dashne Ch. Zahir Copyright (c) 2023 Mardan A. Pirdawood, Shadman R. Kareem, Dashne Ch. Zahir 2023-08-25 2023-08-25 11 2 31 37 10.14500/aro.11165 Particle-Particle Collective Excitations of Sn isotopes <p>In this paper, energy-level schemes and reduced electric transition strengths of neutron-rich Tin isotopes <sup>102, 110, 116, 120, 122</sup>Sn (Z=50) are studied using collective models, that is, particle-particle&nbsp;Tamm-Dancoff Approximation and particle-particle Random Phase Approximation. According to these models, the excited&nbsp;states of closed-core A+2 systems with multipolarity&nbsp;J and isospin&nbsp;T&nbsp;can be described as a linear combination of particle-particle pairs. In our investigation, the low-lying states of the investigated isotopes <sup>102, 110, 116, 120, 122</sup>Sn are described by acting two-particle&nbsp;operators on a correlated core <sup>100</sup>Sn, <sup>108</sup>Sn, <sup>114</sup>Sn, <sup>118</sup>Sn, and <sup>120</sup>Sn, respectively. The Hamiltonian is diagonalized within the model&nbsp;space include {1g<sub>7/2</sub>, 2d<sub>5/2</sub>, 2d<sub>3/2</sub>, 3s<sub>1/2 </sub>and 1h<sub>11/2</sub>}&nbsp;orbits, using the&nbsp;matrix elements of neutron-neutron interaction and modified surface delta interaction. The calculated values are checked by using&nbsp;the resultant eigenvalues and eigenvectors to calculate the excitation&nbsp;energies and reduced electric transition strengths. Our calculated&nbsp;results are compared to the available experimental data, and these&nbsp;comparisons led to reasonable agreements. Effective charges are&nbsp;also used to account for the core polarization effect.</p> Ali H. Taqi Fahema A. Saber Copyright (c) 2023 Ali H. Taqi, Fahema A. Saber 2023-08-25 2023-08-25 11 2 38 42 10.14500/aro.11153 Blackberry (Rubus fruticosus L.) Fruit Extract Phytochemical Profile, Antioxidant Properties, Column Chromatographic Fractionation, and High-performance Liquid Chromatography Analysis of Phenolic Compounds <p>This groundbreaking study explores the untapped potential of blackberries, a member of the Rubus genus in the Rosaceae family, and sheds light on their remarkable health and medicinal properties. Unlike previous research conducted in other regions, this investigation focuses specifically on the blackberry fruit’s phytochemical constituents, chromatographic fractionations, and antioxidant activities in the Koisinjaq and Erbil villages of Northern Iraq. The research unveils seven distinct fractions obtained through column chromatography, with Fractions 2 and 3,5 found to contain p-coumaric acid and rutin, respectively, while Fraction 2 also houses chlorogenic acid. The analysis reveals the impressive richness of the methanolic blackberry extract in phenolic content (38.08 mg gallic acid equivalent/g dry weight [DW]), flavonoids (14.58 mg quercetin equivalent/g DW), flavonols (6.95 mg rutin equivalent/g DW), and anthocyanins (7.73 mg/kg DW), underlining the fruit’s potent antioxidant activity. Furthermore, blackberries display exceptional ferric-reduction and metal-chelating capabilities, with 20.53 mg FeSO<sub>4</sub>/g and 182.12 mg Fe<sup>2+</sup>/g DW, respectively. Remarkably, blackberries also exhibit a remarkable ability to inhibit amylase activity (76.01%). These findings open up exciting prospects for utilizing blackberry fruit as a natural and potent source of phytochemicals and antioxidants in the food and pharmaceutical industries, promising transformative applications in health and well-being.</p> Aryan F. Qader Mehmet Yaman Copyright (c) 2023 Aryan F. Qader, Mehmet Yaman 2023-08-25 2023-08-25 11 2 43 50 10.14500/aro.11189 Radon Activity Concentration Measurements in the Water Collected from the Lower Zab River in the Kurdistan Region of Iraq <p>This study aims to assess radon levels in the water of the Lower Zab River. Knowing the radon concentrations is crucial for understanding the potential risks to human health and implementing protective measures. ARAD7-H<sub>2</sub>O detector has been used to measure the radon concentration in 28 water samples from the Lower Zab River in the Kurdistan Region of Iraq. Results show that the radon activity concentrations ranged from 0.5 to 4 Bq.L<sup>−1</sup>, with an average of 0.61 Bq.L<sup>−1</sup>, and the resulting annual effective dose (AED) varied from 0.137 to 60.06 Sv.y<sup>−1</sup>, with an average of 12.08 Sv.y<sup>−1</sup>. The average radon concentration and AED in the measured samples are below the reference levels recommended by the ICRP and the World Health Organization. Consequently, the LZR water is suitable for human consumption and use and does not present any health hazards related to radon exposure.</p> Jahfer M. Smail Hiwa H. Azeez Habeeb H. Mansour Saddon T. Ahmad Copyright (c) 2023 Jahfer M. Smail, Hiwa H. Azeez, Habeeb H. Mansour, Saddon T. Ahmad 2023-09-18 2023-09-18 11 2 51 58 10.14500/aro.11192 Natural Dye of Beetroot <p>In this study, a simple and indirect spectrophotometric method for the quantification of atenolol in pharmaceutical formulations, utilizing a natural food dye extracted from red beet root, is presented. The process involves the oxidation of atenolol in a 1 mol/LHCl acidic medium, using an excess of potassium persulfate. Subsequently, the resulting tablet solution is employed to fade the red beetroot dye, and the solution is measured spectrophotometrically. The optimized reaction conditions consist of a 16 µg/mL atenolol solution, 2.1 mL (100 µg/mL) of potassium persulfate, and 5 mL (100 µg/mL) of red beetroot dye. Spectrophotometric measurements were performed at 535 nm, and the linear range for quantification was found to be 4–22 µg/mL (R<sup>2</sup> = 0.9987). The method exhibited a limit of detection of 0.01 µg/mL. Notably, the proposed method was successfully applied to analyze various commercial brands of pharmaceutical formulations; yielding results consistent with those obtained using the pharmacopeia method. This research offers a valuable and accessible technique for atenolol quantification, demonstrating potential significance in pharmaceutical analysis and quality control processes.</p> Tara F. Tahir Kurdistan F. Aziz Dashne M. Kokhasmail Copyright (c) 2023 Tara F. Tahir, Kurdistan F. Aziz, Dashne M. Kokhasmail 2023-09-18 2023-09-18 11 2 59 64 10.14500/aro.11286