ARO-THE SCIENTIFIC JOURNAL OF KOYA UNIVERSITY <p>ARO (Today in Hewramí Kurdish) is a&nbsp;scientific&nbsp;journal published by Koya University with&nbsp;e-ISSN: 2307-549X, p-ISSN: 2410-9355, and DOI: 10.14500/2307-549X.&nbsp;ARO is a journal of research articles, review articles, and letters to editor. ARO is a peer-reviewed, open access journal that publishes original works in areas of Science and Engineering. ARO has been indexed by <a href="">DOAJ</a> and got <a href="">DOAJ Seal</a>. ARO has been accepted for indexing in the Emerging Sources Citation Index (ESCI), a new edition of Web of Science™ - <a href=";Word=aro" target="_self">Clarivate&nbsp;Analytics</a> (Thomson Reuters)&nbsp;since Feb 2016.</p> Koya University en-US ARO-THE SCIENTIFIC JOURNAL OF KOYA UNIVERSITY 2410-9355 <p>Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:</p> <ol type="a"> <li class="show">Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a&nbsp;Creative Commons Attribution License [<a href="">CC BY-NC-SA 4.0</a>]&nbsp;that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.</li> <li class="show">Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.</li> <li class="show">Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See&nbsp;<a href="" target="_new">The Effect of Open Access</a>).</li> </ol> Determination of Multi-performance Characteristics in Electric Discharge Machining of DIN 1.2767 Steel Using Grey Relational Analysis <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;Electric discharge machining (EDM) is one of the most important unconventional machining processes, which can cut hard materials and complex shapes that are difficult to machine by conventional machining processes easily and with high accuracy. In this study, L18 orthogonal array combined with gray relational analysis (GRA) is implemented to investigate the multiple performances characteristics in EDM of DIN 1.2767 Tool Steel. Machining process parameters selected were discharge current (Ip), pulse-on time (Ton), pulse-off time (Toff), and electrode material (copper alloys [NSS and B2]). The investigated performances characteristics were tool wear rate (TWR) and material removal rate (MRR). Analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Taguchi’s signal-to-noise ratio with the help of Minitab-17 software were used to analysis the effect of the process parameters on TWR and MRR. The experimental results and data analysis reveal that TWR and MRR are more affected by Ip and Ton. The minimum TWR was obtained at parametric combination Ip (6A), T<sub>on</sub> (800 μs), and T<sub>off</sub> (800 μs) and the maximum MRR attained at Ip (25A), T<sub>on</sub> (800 μs), T<sub>off</sub> (200 μs), and NSS electrode. After applying GRA, the optimal parametric combination for MRR and TWR was determined as Ip (25A), T<sub>on</sub> (800 μs), T<sub>off</sub> (200 μs), and NSS electrode. The study also exhibited the occurrence of an interaction between the variables on the responses. In addition, scanning electron microscopy images showed that the metal surface was affected with the increase in T<sub>on</sub> and T<sub>off</sub>.</p> Abubaker Y. Fatatit Ali Kalyon Copyright (c) 2021 Abubaker Y. Fatatit, Ali Kalyon 2021-03-01 2021-03-01 9 1 1 7 10.14500/aro.10718 Assessment of the Upstream Slope Stability of Darbandikhan Rockfill Dam during Drawdown <p>Earth and rockfill dams face a variety of loading conditions during lifetime. One of the most critical loading conditions is the rapid drawdown of water level after steady state conditions. Rapid drawdown may cause instability of upstream slope of the dam. The present work examines the stability of a rockfill dam under different drawdown rates in terms of factor of safety for the upstream slope of the dam. For this purpose, a computer software named GeoStudio 2012 SEEP/W and SLOPE/W has been used for the numerical analysis. The results showed that the drawdown rate has a significant effect on stability of rockfill dam in which increasing the drawdown rate from 1 m/day to 10 m/day decreases the stability of the dam by 33%. Based on the outcomes, for the studied case the drawdown rate (1 m/day) can be recommended.</p> Sirwan Gh. Salim Krikar M. G. Noori Copyright (c) 2021 Sirwan Gh. Salim, Krikar M. Gharrib 2021-03-01 2021-03-01 9 1 8 15 10.14500/aro.10678 Effect of Sand Percentage on the Compaction Properties and Undrained Shear Strength of Low Plasticity Clay <p>This paper investigates the influence of sand content on the mechanical behavior of a low plasticity clay that collected from south of Iraq (Sumer town). Samples have been prepared with sand contents of 0%, 10%, 20%, 30%, and 40% of the clay weight. Standard Proctor and unconfined compression tests have been carried out and the optimum moisture content, maximum dry density, and undrained shear strength have been determined. The results show a gradual increasing trend of the maximum dry density with the increase of the sand content up to 30%. The highest dry density reaches 1.90 g/cm<sup>3 </sup>corresponding to an optimum moisture content of 12%. In addition, this paper shows that the undrained shear strength is inversely proportional to the increase of the percentage of sand. The results of this work provide a useful addition to the literature regarding the behaviour or low plasticity clay-sand mixture.</p> Iyad Alkroosh Ali Al-Robay Prabir Sarker Saif Alzabeebee Copyright (c) 2021 Iyad Alkroosh, Ali Al-Robay, Prabir Sarker, Saif Alzabeebee 2021-03-01 2021-03-01 9 1 16 20 10.14500/aro.10748 Corrosion in Crude Oil Distillation Unit Overhead: A recent Case Study <p>Despite all the technological advances and the control mechanisms that exist today to achieve the control of corrosion in overhead systems in atmospheric crude oil distillation units, there is still a high level of difficulty in predicting the phenomenon due to the complexity of the chemical compounds involved in the entire process. The study of this practical case aims to determine what control mechanisms should be optimized in a refinery located in the Autonomous Region of Iraqi Kurdistan to prevent corrosion phenomena’s in this specific system and how it should be done to achieve these improvements. It has been suggested that the corrosion mechanisms by hydrochloric acid and by ammonium chloride have been those that have acted in the operational context of the mentioned facility. To test this hypothesis, a study of the unit’s operational conditions and analytical tests were carried out on the construction material of various components and the products (sediments) found inside the tower. The results show that a lack of control in the salts and sediments content of the feed crude have caused an increase in the hydrolysis process of certain components upstream of the tower and thus the generation of acids and salts was promoted. On this basis, it is necessary to optimize the primary treatment of crude oil and update the chemical treatments and washing water systems to adapt to the new conditions of the feed of the refinery.</p> Ari A. Ahmed Copyright (c) 2021 Ari A. Ahmed 2021-03-01 2021-03-01 9 1 21 27 10.14500/aro.10711 Feasibility Study of Concrete Louvers for High-rise Residential Buildings in Terms of Cooling Energy Requirements <p>High-rise residential buildings are increasing worldwide, including cities in the Kurdistan Region of Iraq. Therefore, creating sustainable environments in and around these residential buildings are becoming an important problem. Improving energy efficiency in buildings has received critical attention worldwide. Countries have developed national sustainability strategies that lead to the lower energy consumption while maintaining comfort, reducing energy consumption, and minimizing harmful emissions. In this paper, an analysis of the impact of external shading devices in high-rise residential buildings on energy consumption of a 13-storey building in Sulaimani city is studied. The study is focused on fixed shading elements, explaining the influence of the design of vertical and horizontal shading devices on the total energy consumption of this type of building. The results show that both a single fixed horizontal blind with a depth of 20 cm and a triple vertical shading with the same depth are considered useless. The reduction in cooling loads by two fixed horizontal louvers almost doubled compared to a single fixed horizontal shading with 20 cm. Moreover, triple fixed horizontal louvers with 40 cm have almost the same effect on reducing cooling loads as triple fixed louvers with 60 cm. On the other hand, a triple fixed horizontal shading device with 60 cm has twice the effect on reducing annual cooling loads as a triple fixed vertical shading device with 60 cm.</p> Sara Dh. Bahaadin Binaee Y. Raof Hendren Abdulrahman Copyright (c) 2021 Sara Dh. Bahaadin, Binaee Y. Raof, Hendren Abdulrahman 2021-03-01 2021-03-01 9 1 28 39 10.14500/aro.10743 Structural Behavior of Reinforced Concrete Beams Incorporating Foamed Glass as Aggregates <p>Natural resources that are utilized in civil engineering applications can be saved by replacing them with some recycled materials to produce sustainable concrete with required mechanical and durability properties. In recent years, recycled glass is being used as aggregates in concrete production in many countries across the world. In the present study, the structural properties of reinforced concrete beams containing foamed glass (FG) as a partial natural coarse aggregate replacement are investigated. Five concrete mixes were employed to conduct the present study. The coarse aggregate was replaced with 0%, 25%, 50%, 75%, and 100% (by volume) of FG. Four point-loading flexural tests on beams were conducted up to failure. The results showed that the compressive strength was decreasing linearly with the increasing amount of FG. It was also observed that the ductility of the reinforced concrete beams significantly improved. However, the load-carrying capacity of the beam and load at which the first crack occurs was reduced. It was concluded that the inclusion of FG in structural concrete applications is possible and the structural behavior of concrete beams proved to be similar to that of other types of lightweight aggregate concrete such as wood and plastic aggregates used in similar structural elements.</p> Dawood S. Atrushi Copyright (c) 2021 Dawood S. Atrushi 2021-03-01 2021-03-01 9 1 40 50 10.14500/aro.10746 The Assessment of Acoustical Characteristics for Recent Mosque Buildings in Erbil City of Iraq <p>The study of mosque acoustics, concerning acoustical features, sound quality for speech intelligibility, and additional practical acoustic criteria, is commonly overlooked. Acoustic quality is vital to the fundamental use of mosques, in terms of contributing toward prayers and worshippers’ appreciation. This paper undertakes a comparative analysis of the acoustic quality level and the acoustical characteristics for two modern mosque buildings constructed in Erbil city. This work investigates and examines the acoustical quality and performance of these two mosques and their prayer halls through room simulation using ODEON Room Acoustics Software, to assess the degree of speech intelligibility according to acoustic criteria relative to the spatial requirements and design guidelines. The sound pressure level and other room-acoustic indicators, such as reverberation time (T30), early decay time, and speech transmission index, are tested. The outcomes demonstrate the quality of acoustics in the investigated mosques during semi-occupied and fully-occupied circumstances. The results specify that the sound quality within the both mosques is displeasing as the loudspeakers were off.</p> Dawa A. A. Masih Nawzad K. Jalal Manar N. A. Mohammed Sulaiman A. Mustafa Copyright (c) 2021 Dawa A. A. Masih, Nawzad K. Jalal, Manar N. A. Mohammed, Sulaiman A. Mustafa 2021-03-01 2021-03-01 9 1 51 66 10.14500/aro.10784 Design and Construction of Zana Robot for Modeling Human Player in Rock-paper-scissors Game using Multilayer Perceptron, Radial basis Functions and Markov Algorithms <p>In this paper, the implementation of artificial neural networks (multilayer perceptron [MLP] and radial base functions [RBF]) and the upgraded Markov chain model have been studied and performed to identify the human behavior patterns during rock, paper, and scissors game. The main motivation of this research is the design and construction of an intelligent robot with the ability to defeat a human opponent. MATLAB software has been used to implement intelligent algorithms. After implementing the algorithms, their effectiveness in detecting human behavior pattern has been investigated. To ensure the ideal performance of the implemented model, each player played with the desired algorithms in three different stages. The results showed that the percentage of winning computer with MLP and RBF neural networks and upgraded Markov model, on average in men and women is 59%, 76.66%, and 75%, respectively. Obtained results clearly indicate a very good performance of the RBF neural network and the upgraded Markov model in the mental modeling of the human opponent in the game of rock, paper, and scissors. In the end, the designed game has been employed in both hardware and software which include the Zana intelligent robot and a digital version with a graphical user interface design on the stand. To the best knowledge of the authors, the precision of novel presented method for determining human behavior patterns was the highest precision among all of the previous studies.</p> Maryam Ghasemi Abdolreza Roshani Peshawa J. Muhammad Ali Farhad F. Nia Ehsan Nazemi Gholam H. Roshani Copyright (c) 2021 Maryam Ghasemi, Abdolreza Roshani, Peshawa J. Muhammad Ali, Farhad F. Nia, Ehsan Nazemi, Gholam H. Roshani 2021-03-08 2021-03-08 9 1 67 76 10.14500/aro.10757 Evaluation of Flying Ad Hoc Network Topologies, Mobility Models, and IEEE Standards for Different Video Applications <p>Nowadays, drones became very popular with the enhancement of the technological progress of moving devices with a connection to each other, known as Flying Ad Hoc Network (FANET). It is used in most worldwide necessary life scenarios such as video recording, search and rescue, military missions, moving items between different areas, and many more. This leads to the necessity to evaluate different network strategies between these flying drones, which are essential to improve their quality of performance in the field. Several challenges must be addressed to effectively use FANET, to provide stable and reliable transmission for different types of data during vast changing topologies, such as different video sizes, different types of mobility models, recent Wireless Fidelity standards, types of routing protocols used, security problems, and many more. In this paper, a fully comprehensive analysis of FANET will be done to evaluate and enhance these challenges that concern different video types, mobility models, and IEEE 802.11n standards for best performance, by measuring throughput, retransmission attempt, and delay metrics. The result shows that Gauss–Markov mobility model gives the highest result using Ad Hoc On-Demand Vector and lowest delay, whereas for retransmission attempts, 2.4 GHz frequency has the lowest as it can reach more coverage area than 5 GHz.</p> Ghassan QasMarrogy Copyright (c) 2021 Ghassan QasMarrogy 2021-05-08 2021-05-08 9 1 77 88 10.14500/aro.10764 A Comparative Study of Electrical Characterization of P-Doped Distributed Bragg Reflectors Mirrors for 1300 nm Vertical Cavity Semiconductor Optical Amplifiers <p>This paper presents an electrical analysis of various diameters of two <em>p</em>-types of GaAs/Al<sub>0.9</sub>Ga<sub>0.1</sub>As and two <em>p</em>-types of GaAs/Al<sub>0.3</sub>Ga<sub>0.7</sub>As/Al<sub>0.9</sub>Ga<sub>0.1</sub>As distributed Bragg reflectors (DBRs) mirrors structure grown on undoped and on <em>p</em>-doped GaAs, which affects the characteristics of 1300 nm vertical cavity surface emitting lasers (VCSELs) and vertical cavity semiconductor optical amplifiers (VCSOAs). Electrical characterizations and Hall measurements of current−voltage (<em>IV</em>) for GaAs/Al<sub>0.9</sub>Ga<sub>0.1</sub>As linear DBRs and GaAs/Al<sub>0.3</sub>Ga<sub>0.7</sub>As/Al<sub>0.9</sub>Ga<sub>0.1 </sub>As graded DBRs were also performed at temperatures between 13 and 300 K. Consequently, <em>p</em>-type DBRs are designed with graded composition interfaces technique. The smaller mesa diameters are used to reduce vertical and longitudinal resistances and to limit the heating effect and improve the characteristics of VCSEL/VCSOA devices.</p> Faten A. Chaqmaqchee Copyright (c) 2021 Faten A. Chaqmaqchee 2021-06-03 2021-06-03 9 1 89 94 10.14500/aro.10741 Assessment the Natural Radioactivity of Radionuclides ( 226Ra, 232Th, 40K, and 137Cs) in Wheat Grain <p>This paper investigates the activity concentration of radionuclides (<sup>226</sup>Ra, <sup>232</sup>Th, <sup>40</sup>K and <sup>137</sup>Cs) in the wheat grain samples using a high-purity germanium detector. Thirty-six wheat grain samples were collected from different locations of Koya City, Iraqi Kurdistan region. Average activity concentrations of <sup>226</sup>Ra, <sup>232</sup>Th and <sup>40</sup>K in wheat grain are found to be 0.407 ± 0.097<sup>-1</sup> for <sup>226</sup>Ra, 0.36 ± 0.14<sup>-1</sup> for <sup>232</sup>Th and 109.25± 2.214<sup>-1</sup> for <sup>40</sup>K, respectively. The measured activity concentrations for the radionuclides are compared with the reported data from other countries. In addition, the fallout radionuclide of <sup>137</sup>Cs has no detection of in the wheat grain samples. The radium equivalent activity Raeq, internal and external hazard indices Hin and Hex, and annual gonadal dose equivalent are calculated for the measured samples. The total ingestion dose is 113.19 µSv.y<sup>-1</sup>, which is below the world average value of 290 µSv.y<sup>-1</sup>.</p> Zakariya A. Hussein Najeba F. Salih Shalaw Z. Sedeeq Copyright (c) 2021 Zakariya A. Hussein, Najeba F. Salih, Shalaw Z. Sedeeq 2021-06-28 2021-06-28 9 1 95 102 10.14500/aro.10736 Design and Fabrication of a Novel Ultra Compact Microstrip Diplexer Using Interdigital and Spiral Cells <p>A dual-band bandpass-bandpass microstrip diplexer with very small size and good performance is designed in this work. The proposed diplexer has a novel structure which is introduced for the first time in this paper. In comparison with the previously reported diplexers, it occupies the most compact size of 0.002 λg<sup>2</sup> (226.7 mm<sup>2</sup>), fabricated on 0.787 mm dielectric substrate height. The resonance frequencies of the presented diplexer are located at 0.76 GHz and 1.79 GHz making it suitable for the global system for mobile communications (GSM) applications. It has a wide flat channels with two fractional bandwidths (FBWs) of 41.1% and 50%. Another feature of the proposed diplexer is its ability to suppress the harmonics. It can attenuate the 1<sup>st</sup> to 7<sup>th</sup> harmonics. Moreover, it has low insertion losses and low group delays at both channels while the isolation and return losses are acceptable. Finally, the proposed diplexer is fabricated and measured to verify the simulation results, where a good agreement between the simulation and measurement results is obtained.</p> Salah I. Yahya Abbas Rezaei Copyright (c) 2021 Salah I. Yahya, Abbas Rezaei 2021-06-30 2021-06-30 9 1 103 108 10.14500/aro.10819 Chemical Characterization and Antidiabetic Activity of Essential Oils from Pelargonium graveolens Leaves <p><em>Pelargonium graveolens </em>(Geranium) is a source of the finest quality of fragrance and its essential oils are used as antibacterial, and antifungal agents. The aim of the current research is to determine chemical constituents in the essential oil of <em>P. graveolens </em>by GC-MS and evaluate its antidiabetic activity <em>via</em> α-glucosidase inhibition assay. The chemical composition of <em>P. graveolens </em>essential oil was determined by GC/MS and its antidiabetic activity was assessed through inhibition of α-glucosidase enzyme in <em>in-vitro</em> models. GC-MS analysis determines 36 chemical components in the essential oil of <em>P. graveolens</em> leaves, and citronellyl isovalerate (10.41 %), menthol (9.61 %), linalool (8.63 %), <em>p</em>-menthone (6.31 %), and geranyl tiglate (4.99 %) were recorded as major constituents. The essential oil of <em>P. graveolens</em> leaves showed concentration dependant inhibition of α-glucosidase enzyme ranging from 28.13±1.41 to 74.24±2.53 µg/mL for concentration ranging from 31.25 to 1000 µg/mL. The IC<sub>50</sub> values for of <em>P. graveolens </em>and acarbose were found as 93.72±4.76 and 80.4±2.17 µg/mL, respectively against the α-glucosidase enzyme. The study finding explores the chemical components of <em>P. graveolens </em>growing in the Iraqi Kurdistan region and scientifically supported its possible use in diabetic patients for controlling postprandial hyperglycemia.</p> Javed Ahamad Subasini Uthirapathy Copyright (c) 2021 Javed Ahamad, Subasini Uthirapathy 2021-06-30 2021-06-30 9 1 109 113 10.14500/aro.10791 A Study on the Prevalence and Source of Staphylococci and Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus Causing Superficial Incisional Surgical Site Infection <p><em>Staphylococcus aureus</em> and coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) are common causatives of superficial incisional surgical site infection (SSI). The source of the pathogens is still not fully diagnosed whether it is endogenous or exogenous particularly with regard to the extent of its resistance to antibiotics. Therefore, this study is designed to determine the rate of infection, the source of pathogens, and the extent of their resistance to antibiotics. For this purpose, pre-, intra- and post-operative swabs from the nasal and skin of patients undergoing surgeries and samples from the hospital environment have been collected and processed for isolation and identification of staphylococci. Bacterial analysis and antibiotic susceptibility profiles of the isolates are assessed by unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean (UPGMA) analysis based on random amplified polymorphic DNA-polymerase chain reaction (RAPD-PCR) and disc diffusion test for antibiotics susceptibility profile. The microbiological and PCR results indicate that SSIs are found in 113/512 (22.07%), <em>Staphylococcus</em> spp. rated 67/512 (13.09%) of infections. Further analysis indicates that S. aureus, CoNS, and both of them were causes SSI with different rates 41/67 (61.2%), 23/67 (34.3%), and 3/67 (4.5%), respectively. Results of RAPD-PCR for 70 isolates reveal that 52/70 (74.28%) of SSIs are from endogenous source, followed by 10/70 (14.29%) and 8/70 (11.43%) from hospitals acquired and undetermined sources, respectively. Moreover, results of antibiotic susceptibility test reveal that 24/44 (54.5%) of isolates belong to methicillin-resistant <em>Staphylococcus aureus</em>; from both endogenous and exogenous sources with 13/24 (54.17%) and 11/24 (45.83%), respectively.</p> Kameran M. Ali Bahrouz M. A. Al-Jaff Copyright (c) 2021 Kameran Ali, Bahrouz Al-Jaff 2021-06-30 2021-06-30 9 1 114 121 10.14500/aro.10752