ARO-THE SCIENTIFIC JOURNAL OF KOYA UNIVERSITY <p>ARO (Today in Hewramí Kurdish) is a&nbsp;scientific&nbsp;journal published by Koya University with&nbsp;e-ISSN: 2307-549X, p-ISSN: 2410-9355, and DOI: 10.14500/2307-549X.&nbsp;ARO is a journal of research articles, review articles, and letters to editor. ARO is a peer-reviewed, open access journal that publishes original works in areas of Science and Engineering. ARO has been indexed by <a href="">DOAJ</a> and got <a href="">DOAJ Seal</a>. ARO has been accepted for indexing in the Emerging Sources Citation Index (ESCI), a new edition of Web of Science™ - <a href=";Word=aro" target="_self">Clarivate&nbsp;Analytics</a> (Web of Science) since Feb 2016.</p> en-US <p>Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:</p> <ol type="a"> <li class="show">Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a&nbsp;Creative Commons Attribution License [<a href="">CC BY-NC-SA 4.0</a>]&nbsp;that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.</li> <li class="show">Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.</li> <li class="show">Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See&nbsp;<a href="" target="_new">The Effect of Open Access</a>).</li> </ol> (Dr. Dilan M. Rostam) (Prof. Dr. Salah I. Yahya) Fri, 18 Feb 2022 00:00:00 +0000 OJS 60 Wound Healing Properties and Structural Analysis of Four Geographical Areas’ Natural Clays <p>Clays are fine particle materials that harden after drying. The difference in their structure is the key to their efficacy and their subsequent application. The current study aims to evaluate the wound healing property of four countries (C1:Iraq, C2:Turkey, C3:Azerbaijan and C4:Russia) clay samples by excision model using Sprague dawley rats also the chemical analysis of the samples was performed using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray Fluorescence (XRF) methods. Results revealed that the best wound healing activities were given by C1, C3, C4 and C2 respectively with healing percentages (76%, 71%, 62%, and 60%), respectively. XRD results revealed the presence of Calcium carbonate and CalciumMagnesium carbonate in C1, Dolomite and Calcium-Magnesium carbonate in C2, Cobalt Tantalum Sulfide in C3, Finally Quartz and Silicon Oxide in C4. On the other hand, XRF analysis showed the appearance of different major and trace elements with different quantities in each clay type. We conclude that different countries clays enclose wound healing property with diverse ranges and this diversity is due to their chemical and mineral structures.</p> Zahra A. Amin Copyright (c) 2022 Zahra A. Amin Tue, 15 Feb 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Cement Percent Effect on the Shear and Interface Strength of Remolded Cement Treated Sand <p>This research aims to simulate the behavior of remolded cement treated poorly graded sand in term of shear and interface strength using the direct shear test. Different percentages of cement up to 15% by weight are added to the soil samples. Compacted cement treated soil samples are prepared at the optimum moisture content and left for 28 days in the humidity room then distributed to use them for the remolding samples preparation. The shear strength parameters for both cases soil to soil interface and concrete to soil interface are predicted, where the results show that the interface strength parameters are higher than the shear strength parameters of the remolded soil samples. The increase in cement percent increases the cohesion (C) of the treated soil, whereas the interface cohesion (Cint.) has a maximum value at 10% of added cement, and the maximum percent between cohesion (Cint.) and soil cohesion (C) is of 76.2% at 0% added cement. Moreover, the results show an increase in the interface angle of friction (δ) and a decrease in the angle of friction (φ) as the percent of cement increases. The maximum percent between interface angle (δ) and angle of friction (φ) is 63.5% at 15% of the added cement. The hardened cement in the remolded case adheres to sand grains and works as soil grains with different sizes that lead to changes in the shear properties of the soil.</p> Zahraa N. Rashied Copyright (c) 2022 Zahraa N. Rashied Sat, 19 Feb 2022 09:10:20 +0000 Application of Experimental Design Methodology for Adsorption of Brilliant Blue onto Amberlite XAD-4/Agaricus campestris as a New Biocomposite Adsorbent <p>This research presents a new biocomposite adsorbents using response surface methodology (RSM) to find the best conditions for highest adsorption of Brilliant Blue G250 (BBG) from aqueous solution by Amberlite XAD-4/<em>Agaricus campestris</em>. The most effective parameters are determined by Plackett–Burman design (PBD) with specific ranges initial dye concentration (5–150 mg.L<sup>-1</sup>), temperature (20–50°C), contact time (5–100 min), pH (3–11), shaking speed (150–300 rpm), sample volume (5–75 mL), and adsorbent dosage (0.05–0.6 g). Then, in the second step, the optimum condition of effective factors is predicted using steepest ascent design. Finally, optimal medium conditions of effective parameters with central composite design are located. According to RSM, the best adsorbent amount, contact time, initial dye concentration, and sample volume for maximum removal% of BBG (96.72%) are 0.38 g, 60.78 min, 107.13 mg.L<sup>-1</sup>, and 28.6 mL, respectively. The adsorption of brilliant blue is approved by scanning electron microscopy. Under optimum conditions, it is concluded that XAD4/A. <em>campestr</em> is biocomposite is a suitable adsorbent for removing BBG from aqueous solution.</p> Ahmed A. Ahmed, Vahap Yönten Copyright (c) 2022 Ahmed A. Ahmed, Vahap Yönten Fri, 25 Feb 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Detecting Deepfakes with Deep Learning and Gabor Filters <p>The proliferation of many editing programs based on artificial intelligence techniques has contributed to the emergence of deepfake technology. Deepfakes are committed to fabricating and falsifying facts by making a person do actions or say words that he never did or said. So that developing an algorithm for deepfakes detection is very important to discriminate real from fake media. Convolutional neural networks (CNNs) are among the most complex classifiers, but choosing the nature of the data fed to these networks is extremely important. For this reason, we capture fine texture details of input data frames using 16 Gabor filters in<br>different directions and then feed them to a binary CNN classifier instead of using the red-green-blue color information. The purpose of this paper is to give the reader a deeper view of (1) enhancing the efficiency of distinguishing fake facial images from real facial images by developing a novel model based on deep learning and Gabor filters and (2) how deep learning (CNN) if combined with forensic tools (Gabor filters) contributed to the detection of deepfakes. Our experiment shows that the training accuracy reaches about 98.06% and 97.50% validation. Likened to the state-of-the-art methods, the proposed model has higher efficiency.</p> Wildan J. Jameel, Suhad M. Kadhem, Ayad R. Abbas Copyright (c) 2022 Wildan J. Jameel, Suhad M. Kadhem, Ayad R. Abbas Fri, 18 Mar 2022 18:07:34 +0000 Suitability of the Carbonate Rocks of the Bekhme Formation Exposed in Shakrook Anticline, Iraqi Kurdistan region, for Cement Industry <p style="text-align: justify;">The Bekhme Formation forms almost the bulk of the Shakrook anticline, especially the limbs. The current research deals with studying the exposed beds within the Bekhme Formation at the Shakrook anticline to check the suitability of the exposed rocks at the northeastern limb of the anticline for the cement industry. Twenty rock samples from a section which lies along a deeply cut valley that crosses the northeastern limb of the Shakrook anticline within the Bekhme Formation were collected. The channel sampling method was applied; therefore, each sample represents the concerned sampling interval and to be representative for the thickness of the sampled interval. The total thickness of the sampled section is 110 m with a covered interval of 15 m, totaling to 125 m. The collected 20 samples were prepared at the laboratory of the Koya University and were subjected to XRF test at the Tarbiat Modares University, Iran, to indicate the concentration of the main oxides (CaO, MgO, Al2O3, Fe2O3, Na2O, K2O, and SO3), and Cl and L.O.I. The indicated concentrations at each sample, from both universities, were compared and were found to be almost coinciding. The average concentrations at each sample were changed to weighted averages and the results were compared with the Iraqi standards for cement industry. The results revealed that the sampled rocks are excellent for cement production.</p> Mohammed J. Hamwandy, Rahel Kh. Ibrahim, Varoujan K. Sissakian Copyright (c) 2022 Mohammed J. Hamwandy, Rahel Kh. Ibrahim, Varoujan K. Sissakian Fri, 25 Mar 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Bioremediation Ability of the Local Isolate Enterobacter cloacae from Disposal Site <p>Illegal dumping is a serious problem that needs to be addressed immediately to preserve human health and the environment as if the pollution that arises from it reaches the groundwater, complications of the remediation processes will increase. To decontaminate the organic and inorganic components, bioremediation seems to be the most environmentally friendly and economically viable technique without further treatment as reported by many studies. In this investigation, samples were taken from the soil of the main dumping area in Koysinjaq in Kurdistan Region of Iraq to determine the most potent bacteria to remediate the existed pollutants. The existence of non-essential minerals and organic compounds in the soil sample was detected using X-ray fluorescence device, and ethane and 1,2-dichloroethane solvents separating technique, respectively. Then, from the same samples, three different naturally occurring bacteria were isolated and cultured under optimized conditions then stimulated for a good result. Finally, spectrophotometer was set at wavelength of 600 nm and used to detect the heaviest growth of bacteria after incubating the cultured bacteria on a mineral salt broth medium with the extracted pollutants at pH 7.0 overnight at 32°C. Based on the highest absorbance, the most effective type of bacteria (Enterobacter cloacae) was chosen among others to remediate the organic components in which approximately 90% of them are plastics, medical waste, municipal waste, electrical items, and hydrocarbons, and some heavy metals, for instance aluminum and lead, which were found in the soil.</p> Hanaa A. Muhammad, Hanan T. Subhi, Khalid N. Sediq Copyright (c) 2022 Hanaa A. Muhammad, Hanan T. Subhi, Khalid N. Sediq Sun, 10 Apr 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Network Transmission Flags Data Affinity-based Classification by K-Nearest Neighbor <p>Abstract—This research is concerned with the data generated during a network transmission session to understand how to extract value from the data generated and be able to conduct tasks. Instead of comparing all of the transmission flags for a transmission session at the same time to conduct any analysis, this paper conceptualized the influence of each transmission flag on network-aware applications by comparing the flags one by one on their impact to the application during the transmission session, rather than comparing all of the transmission flags at the same time. The K-nearest neighbor (KNN) type classification was used because<br>it is a simple distance-based learning algorithm that remembers earlier training samples and is suitable for taking various flags with<br>their effect on application protocols by comparing each new sample with the K-nearest points to make a decision. We used transmission session datasets received from Kaggle for IP flow with 87 features and 3.577.296 instances. We picked 13 features from the datasets and ran them through KNN. RapidMiner was used for the study, and the results of the experiments revealed that the KNN-based model was not only significantly more accurate in categorizing data, but it was also significantly more efficient due to the decreased processing costs.</p> Nahla Aljojo Copyright (c) 2022 Nahla Aljojo Mon, 25 Apr 2022 20:50:35 +0000 Detection of SARS-CoV-2 Reinfections by Rapid Inexpensive Methods <p>New SARS-CoV-2 infections are difficult to beverified, whether they are reinfections or persistent infections. The most prominent factors used for differentiating reinfections from persistent infections are whole-genome sequencing and phylogenetic analyses that require time and funds, which may not be feasible in most developing countries. This study explores reinfections with COVID-19 that harbors D614G and N501Y mutations by rapid inexpensive methods. It exploits the previously developed rapid economic methods that identified both D614G and N501Y mutations in clinical samples using real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) probes and conventional PCR specific primers. In the present study, an immunocompetent patient has been found with a SARS-CoV-2 N501Y reinfection without comorbidities. According to the obtained results, this study suggests that the initial infection was due to a variant that contained only D614G mutation whereas the reinfection was potentially a result of alpha variant contained three mutations confirmed by DNA sequencing, including D614G, N501Y, and A570D mutations. These techniques will support rapid detection of SARS-CoV-2 reinfections through the identification of common spike mutations in the developing countries where sequencing tools are unavailable. Furthermore, seven cases of reinfections were also confirmed by these methods. These rapid methods can also be applied to large samples of reinfections that may increase our understanding epidemiology of the pandemic.</p> Sirwan M.A. Al-jaf, Sherko S. Niranji Copyright (c) 2022 Sirwan M.A. Al-jaf, Sherko S. Niranji Tue, 03 May 2022 08:13:27 +0000 Driver Drowsiness Detection Using Gray Wolf Optimizer Based on Face and Eye Tracking <p>It is critical today to provide safe and collision-free transport. As a result, identifying the driver’s drowsiness before their capacity to drive is jeopardized. An automated hybrid drowsiness classification method that incorporates the artificial neural network (ANN) and the gray wolf optimizer (GWO) is presented to discriminate human drowsiness and fatigue for this aim. The proposed method is evaluated in alert and sleep-deprived settings on the driver drowsiness detection of video dataset from the National Tsing Hua University Computer Vision Lab. The video was subjected to various video and image processing techniques to detect the drivers’ eye condition. Four features of the eye were extracted to determine the condition of drowsiness, the percentage of eyelid closure (PERCLOS), blink frequency, maximum closure duration of the eyes, and eye aspect ratio (ARE). These parameters were then integrated into an ANN and combined with the proposed method (gray wolf optimizer with ANN [GWOANN]) for drowsiness classification. The accuracy of these models was calculated, and the results demonstrate that the proposed method is the best. An Adadelta optimizer with 3 and 4 hidden layer networks of (13, 9, 7, and 5) and (200, 150, 100, 50, and 25) neurons was utilized. The GWOANN technique had 91.18% and 97.06% accuracy, whereas the ANN model had 82.35% and 86.76%.</p> Sarah S. Jasim, Alia K. Abdul Hassan, Scott Turner Copyright (c) 2022 Sarah S. Jasim, Alia K. Abdul Hassan, Scott Turner Thu, 05 May 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Measuring the Voice Resemblance Extent of Identical (Monozygotic) Twins Using Voiceprints Neutrosophic Domain <p>The identical twins (Monozygotic) are siblings created from the division of one fertilized egg (zygote), so they will be identical in their genetic characteristics and therefore in their phenotypic traits to a very large extent. Among these traits is the voice or the voiceprint of these twins. This research aims to suggest a method to determine the extent of the similarity and the difference between the voiceprints between the brothers of the identical twins and thus, it is possible to distinguish between their voices. This study relied on using a number of audio clips collected from 35 identical twins. The proposed method is based on the use of the spectrogram that represents the voiceprint of the twins. The spectrogram is a two-dimensional function that can be used in the Neutrosophic Transformation to convert the voiceprints to the Neutrosophic domain represented by three membership functions (True, False, and Indeterminate). The results showed that the average extent of the similarity ratio between twins’ voices (True membership) is 67.6%, the difference ratio (False membership) is 32.3%, and the indeterminacy membership function ratio is 18.2%.</p> Yazen A. Khaleel, Caroline Y. Daniel, Salah I. Yahya Copyright (c) 2022 Yazen A. Khaleel, Caroline Y. Daniel, Salah I. Yahya Fri, 27 May 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Identification DNA Methylation Change of ABCC8 Gene in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus as Predictive Biomarkers <p>Type 2 diabetes mellitus is the most common chronic endocrine disorder that affecting 5%–10% of adults globally. Recently, the disease has rapidly spread throughout the Kurdistan Region. This study investigates DNA methylation status in the ABCC8 gene among the study population, and it possibly used as a biomarker. One hundred and thirteen individuals were included in this study, and they were divided into three categories (47 diabetes, 36 prediabetic, and 30 controls). Blood samples were collected to investigate DNA methylation status in patients who attended private clinical sectors in Koya city, Kurdistan Region of Iraq, between August and December 2021. Methylation-specific PCR (MSP) uses paired primers for each methylated and unmethylated region. In addition, the X2 Kruskal–Wallis statistical and Wilcoxon signed-rank tests were run with a significance level of p 0.05. In comparison to the healthy group, hypermethylation of DNA is detected in the promoter region of diabetes and prediabetes. In addition, age, gender, BMI, alcohol use, family history, and physical activity all influence the degree of DNA methylation in people who have had coronavirus illness. The abovementioned findings suggest that DNA methylation alterations in the ABCC8 promoter region might be exploited as a possible predictive biomarker for type 2 diabetes mellitus diagnosis.</p> Harem O. Smail, Dlnya A. Mohamad Copyright (c) 2022 Harem O. Smail, Dlnya A. Mohamad Mon, 30 May 2022 00:00:00 +0000 An Optimized SWCSP Technique for Feature Extraction in EEG-based BCI System <p>Brain-computer interface (BCI) is an evolving technology having huge potential for rehabilitation of patients suffering from disorders of the nervous system, besides&nbsp; many other nonmedical applications. Multichannel electroencephalography (EEG) is widely used to provide input signals to a BCI system. Significant research in methodology employed to implement different stages of BCI system, has led to discovery of new issues and challenges. The raw EEG data includes artifacts from environmental and physiological sources, which is eliminated in preprocessing phase of BCI system. It is then followed by a feature extraction stage to isolate a few relevant features for further classification to a particular motor imagery (MI) activity. A feature extraction approach based on spectrally weighted common spatial pattern (SWCSP) is proposed in this paper to improve overall accuracy of a BCI system. The reported literature uses SWCSP for feature extraction, as it has outperformed other techniques. The proposed approach enhances its performance by optimizing its parameters. The independent component analysis (ICA) method is used for detection and removal of irrelevant data, while linear discriminant analysis (LDA) is used as a classifier. The proposed approach is executed on benchmark data-set 2a of BCI competition IV. It yielded classification accuracy of 70.6% across nine subjects, which is higher than all the reported approaches.&nbsp;</p> Navtej S. Ghumman, Balkrishan Jindal Copyright (c) 2022 Navtej S. Ghumman, Balkrishan Jindal Mon, 30 May 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Investigating the Impact of Min-Max Data Normalization on the Regression Performance of K-Nearest Neighbor with Different Similarity Measurements <p>K-nearest neighbor (KNN) is a lazy supervised learning algorithm, which depends on computing the similarity between the target and the closest neighbor(s). On the other hand, min-max normalization has been reported as a useful method for eliminating the impact of inconsistent ranges among attributes on the efficiency of some machine learning models. The impact of min-max normalization on the performance of KNN models is still not clear, and it needs more investigation. Therefore, this research examines the impacts of the min-max normalization method on the regression performance of KNN models utilizing eight different similarity measures, which are City block, Euclidean, Chebychev, Cosine, Correlation, Hamming, Jaccard, and Mahalanobis. Five benchmark datasets have been used to test the accuracy of the KNN models with the original dataset and the normalized dataset. Mean squared error (MSE) has been utilized as a performance indicator to compare the results. It’s been concluded that the impact of min-max normalization on the KNN models utilizing City block, Euclidean, Chebychev, Cosine, and Correlation depends on the nature of the dataset itself, therefore, testing models on both original and normalized datasets are recommended. The performance of KNN models utilizing Hamming, Jaccard, and Mahalanobis makes no difference by adopting min-max normalization because of their ratio nature, and dataset covariance involvement in the similarity calculations. Results showed that Mahalanobis outperformed the other seven similarity measures. This research is better than its peers in terms of reliability, and quality because it depended on testing different datasets from different application fields.</p> Peshawa J. Muhammad Ali Copyright (c) 2022 Peshawa J. Muhammad Ali Tue, 21 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Effect of Static Magnetic Field on Bone Marrow Cellular Density <p>This study was undertaken to investigate the influence of static magnetic field (SMF) on bone marrow cellular density (BMCD) variation proportionally to bone trabeculae. Female albino Wistar rats exposed with 2.4 ± 0.2 millitesla for 1–4weeks duration continuously versus 1h, 2h, 6h, and 8h/day. Trephine biopsy of femurs bone was examined under optical microscope. Data analyzed with ImageJ software. Results showed that short time exposure per day did not enhance the BMCD compare to high exposure period/day. Six hours/day exposure during 1week increased the marrow cellular density (hypercellularity) significantly (P ≤ 0.05) compares to bone trabeculae. Contrarily, 8h/day exposure reduced the BMCD slightly and significantly (hypocellularity, about 50% reduction) due to 1week and 4weeks exposure duration, respectively. The SMF has associated bone marrow cellularity tendency of rat’s femur.</p> Bestoon T. Mustafa, Sardar P. Yaba, Asaad H. Ismail Copyright (c) 2022 Bestoon T. Mustafa, Sardar P. Yaba, Asaad H. Ismail Tue, 21 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Extended-Spectrum β-lactamases and AmpC Production among Uropathogenic Isolates of Escherichia coli and Antibiogram Pattern <p>Emergence of drug resistance in Escherichia coli due to various mechanisms makes the treatment choices very limited. The objective of this research was to investigate extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs) and AmpC lactamases in E. coli isolates from urinary tract infections (UTIs) and to assess their antibacterial susceptibility patterns in a health-care context. Atotal of 70 E. coli isolates from clinically assumed cases of UTI patients during the 9months period. The isolates with bacteriuria (105 CFU/ml) were identified. ESBL and AmpC were detected phenotypically. Out of the 70 isolates of uropathogenic E. coli, ESBL production was detected in 34(48.6%) isolates and AmpC producer in 27(38.6%) of isolates in which 14(20%) of them showed coexistence phenotype of both ESBLs and AmpC and 23(32.9%) E. coli isolates were both ESBL and AmpC non-producer. The findings donated information regarding drug resistance. The level of resistance recorded in ESBL-and AmpC-producing uropathogenic E. coli of this study was raising; therefore, it is crucial to have a strict infection control measures and routine monitoring of ESBL-and AmpC-producing bacteria in clinical laboratory.</p> Aryan R. Ganjo Copyright (c) 2022 Aryan R. Ganjo Tue, 21 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Role of Laser Produced Silver Nanoparticles in Reversing Antibiotic Resistance in Some MultidrugResistant Pathogenic Bacteria <p>Silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) were produced through nanosecond laser in deionized water. These nanoparticles were characterized by UV–VIS spectrometer and transmission electron microscopy. VITEK®2 compact system was used to identify Escherichia coli (ESBL strain) and Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA strain) as multidrug-resistance (MDR) bacteria. The antibacterial activity of Ag NPs, ampicillin (AMP), and their combinations was tested against both bacterial isolates through standard microbiological culturing techniques. Our data show that both of E. coli and S. aureus were highly resistant to AMP. Ag NPs alone reduced growth in both bacterial isolates considerably. Growth declined drastically in both bacteria when AMP was used in combination with Ag NPs. The minimal inhibitory concentration of combined agents for E. coli was 20 µg/ml Ag NPs + 1 mg AMP/ml and for S. aureus was 10 µg/ml Ag NPs + 1 mg AMP/ml. The results show that the Ag NPs have great potentials in enhancing the antimicrobial activities of drugs that used to be ineffective against MDR bacteria. Administering combinations of antibiotic(s) with AgNPs may help in treating patients suffering from infections caused by MDR bacteria. Further in vivo and in vitro investigations are required to evaluate the side effects of these combinations.</p> Abubaker H. Hamad, Mahmoud A. Chawsheen, Ahmed A. Al-Naqshbandi Copyright (c) 2022 Abubaker H. Hamad, Mahmoud A. Chawsheen, Ahmed A. Al-Naqshbandi Thu, 30 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Design, Modeling, and Characterization of Hot Electron Light Emission and Lasing in Semiconductor Heterostructure-VCSOA with Optical Gain up to 36 dB <p>Vertical-cavity semiconductor optical amplifiers (VCSOAs) are interesting devices for optical communication applications. In this work, we have studied the characteristics of gain spectra and amplifier bandwidth in reflection mode at 1300 nm <em>GaInNAs/GaAs</em> hot electron light emission and lasing in semiconductor heterostructure-VCSOA structure using MATLAB program. The device contains 16 Ga<sub>0.7</sub>In<sub>0.3</sub>N<sub>0.038</sub>As<sub>0.962</sub> multiple quantum wells (QWs) in its intrinsic region; the active region is bounded between eight pairs of GaAs/AlAs top distributed Bragg reflectors (DBRs) mirror and 25 pairs of <em>AlAs/GaAs</em> bottom DBRs mirror. Simulation results suggest that the resonance cavity of QW of HILLISH-VCSOA is varied with temperature and number of DBRs periods. We compare the relation between the wavelength and gain at a different single-pass gain in both reflection and transmission modes. The highest gain at around 36 dB is observed in reflection mode. Moreover, we calculated the amplifier bandwidth at different periods of top mirror’s reflectivity, in which when the peak reflection gains increases, the amplifier bandwidth decreases.</p> Hawro I. Yaba, Faten A. Chaqmaqchee Copyright (c) 2022 Hawro I. Yaba, Faten A. Chaqmaqchee Thu, 30 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Detection of Sperm DNA Integrity and Some Immunological Aspects in Infertile Males <p>Immunoinfertility caused by anti-sperm antibodies (ASAs) represents about 10–20% of infertility among couples, which interfere with sperm motility and ability to penetrate cervical mucus, sperm-oocyte binding, fertilization, and embryo development. In addition, deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) damages are increasingly found with infertile cases affecting male reproduction potency and progeny. This study aims to assess the semen, presence of ASAs, and DNA fragmentation index in normozoospermic patients. A total number of 116 cases with an average age of 20–51 years old, and duration of infertility at 4.70 ± 2.77 are classified into 77 and 39 primary and secondary types of infertility, respectively. Mixed agglutination reaction test was used to estimate the ASAs in semen (direct method) and in seminal plasma and blood serum (indirect method), for both immunoglobulins IgG and IgA. Acridine orange test was used to detect DNA fragmentation index. The results showed a significant difference (<em>P</em> &gt; 0.05) for those with a secondary type of infertility at means 24.37 and 31.48 for IgG, and 14.46 ± 1.76 and 6.86 ± 0.39 for IgA by both direct and indirect methods, respectively. The direct method showed a significant difference only for the sperm tail, while that for indirect method was in sperm mid-piece. The mean of DFI for all cases was 38.25 ± 2.08, at 41.61 ± 2.19 and 31.63 ± 4.29, for both primary and secondary cases, respectively. The percentage of ASAs revealed no significant difference with DFI, except in some parts of sperm.</p> Sarmad N. Mageed, Shukur R. Hamashareef, Ahmed F. Shallal Copyright (c) 2022 Sarmad N. Mageed, Shukur R. Hamashareef, Ahmed F. Shallal Thu, 30 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Synchro Software-Based Alternatives for Improving Traffic Operations at Signalized Intersections <p>Traffic congestion is a considerable problem in urban arterials, especially at signalized intersections. Signalized intersections are critical elements of the highway system, thus improving their performance would significantly influence the overall operating performance of the system in terms of delay and level of service (LOS). The aim of this study is to assess the capacity performance of two signalized intersections in Duhok city, namely, Zari land intersection and Salahaddin Mosque intersection using the procedure in the Highway Capacity Manual and Synchro software. Total intersection delay, LOS, and volume to capacity ratio (v/c) were the measures of effectiveness used for comparison purposes. Different optimization alternatives have been tested to improve current and future performance. The results have shown that the Zari land intersection is currently operating at LOS F with an average delay of 590 s/veh and high values of v/c at specific movements. Results of optimization show that the scenario of creating an overpass with a change in cycle length and adding one additional lane in each direction is the best alternative to improve its performance to the LOS D with the maximum v/c ratio of 0.86. For Salahaddin Mosque intersection, the delay can be reduced from 544 s/veh (LOS F) with high values of v/c at the major street through movement to an average delay of 70 s/veh (LOS E) and maximum v/c ratio of 1, when cycle length and geometrics are changed, and approaching traffic from the minor street is prohibited.</p> Nasreen A. Hussein Copyright (c) 2022 Nasreen A. Hussein Thu, 30 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Human Body Posture Recognition Approaches <p>Human body posture recognition has become the focus of many researchers in recent years. Recognition of body posture is used in various applications, including surveillance, security, and health monitoring. However, these systems that determine the body’s posture through video clips, images, or data from sensors have many challenges when used in the real world. This paper provides an important review of how most essential ‎ hardware technologies are ‎used in posture recognition systems‎. These systems capture and collect datasets through ‎accelerometer sensors or computer vision. In addition, this paper presents a comparison ‎study with state-of-the-art in terms of accuracy. We also present the advantages and ‎limitations of each system and suggest promising future ideas that can increase the ‎efficiency of the existing posture recognition system. Finally, the most common datasets ‎applied in these systems are described in detail. It aims to be a resource to help choose one of the methods in recognizing the posture of the human body and the techniques that suit each method. It analyzes more than 80 papers between 2015 and 2020</p> Mohammed A. Ali, Abir J. Hussain, Ahmed T. Sadiq Copyright (c) 2022 Mohammed A. Ali, Abir J. Hussain, Ahmed T. Sadiq Mon, 13 Jun 2022 08:27:08 +0000