ARO-THE SCIENTIFIC JOURNAL OF KOYA UNIVERSITY <p>ARO (Today in Hewramí Kurdish) is a&nbsp;scientific&nbsp;journal published by Koya University with&nbsp;e-ISSN: 2307-549X, p-ISSN: 2410-9355, and DOI: 10.14500/2307-549X.&nbsp;ARO is a journal of research articles, review articles, and letters to editor. ARO is a peer-reviewed, open access journal that publishes original works in areas of Science and Engineering. ARO has been indexed by <a href="">DOAJ</a> and got <a href="">DOAJ Seal</a>. ARO has been accepted for indexing in the Emerging Sources Citation Index (ESCI), a new edition of Web of Science™ - <a href=";Word=aro" target="_self">Clarivate&nbsp;Analytics</a> (Web of Science) since Feb 2016.</p> en-US <p>Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:</p> <ol type="a"> <li class="show">Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a&nbsp;Creative Commons Attribution License [<a href="">CC BY-NC-SA 4.0</a>]&nbsp;that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.</li> <li class="show">Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.</li> <li class="show">Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See&nbsp;<a href="" target="_new">The Effect of Open Access</a>).</li> </ol> (Dr. Dilan M. Rostam) (Prof. Dr. Salah I. Yahya) Fri, 15 Oct 2021 14:02:53 +0000 OJS 60 Efficient Kinect Sensor-based Kurdish Sign Language Recognition Using Echo System Network <p>Sign language assists in building communication and bridging gaps in understanding. Automatic sign language recognition (ASLR) is a field that has recently been studied for various sign languages. However, Kurdish sign language (KuSL) is relatively new and therefore researches and designed datasets on it are limited. This paper has proposed a model to translate KuSL into text and has designed a dataset using Kinect V2 sensor. The computation complexity of feature extraction and classification steps, which are serious problems for ASLR, has been investigated in this paper. The paper proposed a feature engineering approach on the skeleton position alone to provide a better representation of the features and avoid the use of all of the image information. In addition, the paper proposed model makes use of recurrent neural networks (RNNs)-based models. Training RNNs is inherently difficult, and consequently, motivates to investigate alternatives. Besides the trainable long short-term memory (LSTM), this study has proposed the untrained low complexity echo system network (ESN) classifier. The accuracy of both LSTM and ESN indicates they can outperform those in state-of-the-art studies. In addition, ESN which has not been proposed thus far for ASLT exhibits comparable accuracy to the LSTM with a significantly lower training time.</p> Sami F. Mirza, Abdulbasit K. Al-Talabani Copyright (c) 2021 Sami F. Mirza, Abdulbasit K. Al-Talabani Wed, 13 Oct 2021 08:29:35 +0000 Kurdish Dialect Recognition using 1D CNN <p>Dialect recognition is one of the most attentive topics in the speech analysis area. Machine learning algorithms have been widely used to identify dialects. In this paper, a model that based on three&nbsp;different 1D Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) structures&nbsp;is developed for Kurdish dialect recognition. This model is evaluated, and CNN structures are compared to each other. The result shows that the proposed model has outperformed the state of the art. The model is evaluated on the experimental data that have been collected by the staff of department of computer science at the University of Halabja. Three dialects are involved in the dataset as the Kurdish language&nbsp;consists of three major dialects, namely Northern Kurdish (Badini variant), Central Kurdish (Sorani variant), and Hawrami.&nbsp;The advantage of the CNN model is not required to concern handcraft as the CNN model is featureless. According to the results, the 1 D CNN method can make predictions with an average accuracy of 95.53% on the Kurdish dialect classification. In this study, a new method is proposed to interpret the closeness of the Kurdish dialects by using a confusion matrix and a non-metric multi-dimensional visualization technique. The outcome demonstrates that it is straightforward to cluster given Kurdish dialects and linearly isolated from the neighboring dialects.</p> Karzan J. Ghafoor, Karwan M. Hama Rawf, Ayub O. Abdulrahman, Sarkhel H. Taher Copyright (c) 2021 Karzan J. Ghafoor, Karwan M. Hama Rawf, Ayub O. Abdulrahman, Sarkhel H. Taher Fri, 15 Oct 2021 10:44:53 +0000 Withania Somnifera: Correlation of Phytoconstituents with Hypolipidemic and Cardioprotective Activities <p><em>Withania somnifera</em> (WS) (Dunal) or Ashwagandha is a well-known hypolipidemic herb and antioxidant. In this study, 75% ethanolic extract of WS is attempted to evaluate the cardioprotective activity of isoproterenol-induced cardiotoxicity and hypolipidemic activity in Triton WR 1339-induced hyperlipidemia. In addition, <br>phytochemical evaluation of the same extracts analyzed by gas chromatography–mass spectrometer (GC–MS). This study found that 7 days of therapy with WS extracts at 1000 mg/kg b.wt. reduced cholesterol by 76%, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) by 71%, and TAG by 12% (P &lt; 0.05). Furthermore, it can significantly reduce cholesterol and LDL levels (P &lt; 0.05). Similarly, the use of 50 mg/kg b.wt. of WS extract showed a cardioprotective effect against isoproterenol-induced cardiac toxic rats. The antioxidants glutathione, glutathione peroxidase, and catalase are increased in WS extract (P &lt; 0.05), whereas the release of cardiac indicators in heart tissue is reduced (P &lt; 0.05). Furthermore, a 30-day treatment with WS also reduced triacylglycerol in isoprenaline-induced cardiotoxic rats. GC–MS analysis of the methanol fraction of the Ashwagandha 70% ethanolic extract showed the presence of higher concentrations of fatty acids. In conclusion, WS showed hypolipidemic and cardioprotective activities in diseased animals induced by isoproterenol and Triton WR 1339.</p> Subasini Uthirapathy, Tara F. Tahir Copyright (c) 2021 Subasini Uthirapathy, Tara F. Tahir Fri, 15 Oct 2021 10:45:25 +0000 Identification and Characterization of Different Types of Plastics Wastes Using X-Ray Diffraction and X-Ray Fluorescence Techniques <p>In this study, different types of polymers in postconsumer plastics with pure plastics have been studied. Highdensity polyethylene (HDPE1 and HDPE2), polyvinyl chloride (PVC3 and PVC4), polyethylene terephthalate (PET5 and PET6), and polypropylenes (PP7 and PP8) were compared using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray fluorescence (XRF) techniques. XRF has shown the spectral in K-lines of polymer materials present in plastics waste. The peak intensity and degree of crystallinity of commercial polymers are varied using XRD analysis. The intensity not attributable to the crystalline peaks may be regarded as the amorphous scattering and used as a template in analyzing the diffraction pattern of the samples. The XRD analysis helps to provide characteristic spectral lines whose intensities vary with the type of each constituent polymer. The combined usage of XRD and XRF techniques yielded very useful and effective results for a commercial plastic management.</p> Shawbo A. Abubaker, Faten A. chaqmaqchee, Akram H. Taha Copyright (c) 2021 Shawbo A. Abubaker; Faten A Chaqmaqche, Akram H. Taha Thu, 28 Oct 2021 16:27:14 +0000 A Comparison of Top Distributed Bragg Reflector for 1300 nm Vertical Cavity Semiconductor Optical Amplifiers Based on III–V Compound <p>In this work, the design of GaAs/AlGaAs distributed Bragg reflector (DBR) has been implemented for 1300 nm vertical cavity semiconductor optical amplifiers (VCSOAs) for optical fiber communication applications. The top DBR period and Al concentration are varied, the peak reflectivity of the DBR is increasing from 50% to 97.5% for 13 periods with increasing Al concentration, whereas the reflectivity bandwidth is increased to almost 190 nm. The relation between wavelength and incidence angle variation on DBR reflectivity is increasing with the incident angle (0°, 20°, 30°, and 50°), the resonant wavelength and bandwidth of the measured reflectance spectra shifts to shorter wavelength and wider bandwidth, respectively. In addition, a comparison between the linear, the graded, and the parabolic DBRs has been achieved with transfer matrix method using MATLAB software to show the influence of layer in DBRs and its effect on lasing wavelength. It is shown that using grading DBR mirror is much more beneficial compared to abrupt DBR, whereas it has lower reflectivity of almost 10% due to VCSOAs device which needs less number of top layers until prevent reaching lasing threshold.</p> Shawbo A. Abubaker Copyright (c) 2021 Shawbo A. Abubaker Thu, 28 Oct 2021 16:28:50 +0000 Examining Heterogeneity Structured on a Large Data Volume with Minimal Incompleteness <p class="Abstract" style="margin-top: 0cm; text-indent: 0cm; line-height: 200%;"><span style="font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 200%;">While Big Data analytics can provide a variety of benefits, processing heterogeneous data comes with its own set of limitations. A transaction pattern must be studied independently while working with Bitcoin data, this study examines twitter data related to Bitcoin and investigate communications pattern on bitcoin transactional tweet. Using the hashtags #Bitcoin or #BTC on Twitter, a vast amount of data was gathered, which was mined to uncover a pattern that everyone either (speculators, teaches, or the stakeholders) uses on Twitter to discuss Bitcoin transactions. This aim is to determine the direction of Bitcoin transaction tweets based on historical data. As a result, this research proposes using Big Data analytics to track Bitcoin transaction communications in tweets in order to discover a pattern. Hadoop platform MapReduce was used. The finding indicate that In the map step of the procedure, Hadoop's tokenize the dataset and parse them to the mapper where thirteen patterns were established and reduced to three patterns using the attributes previously stored data in the Hadoop context, one of which is the Emoji data that was left out in previous research discussions, but the text is only one piece of the puzzle on bitcoin transaction interaction, and the key part of it is “No certainty, only possibilities” in Bitcoin transactions</span></p> Nahla Aljojo Copyright (c) 2021 Nahla Aljojo Tue, 02 Nov 2021 13:42:37 +0000 Spontaneous Emission Enhancement of CdSe Quantum Dots Embedded in a Two-dimensional Photonic Crystal L3 Nanocavity <p>Two-dimensional photonic crystal nanocavities were designed to tailor cavity quantum electrodynamics. Enhancing the spontaneous emission of low-quality factor nanocavity with embedded CdSe quantum dots (QDs) emitters is the aim of this study. Low concentration layer of CdSe QDs was sandwiched between two layers of Si2 N3 membrane using plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition. The modification rate in spontaneous emission of L3 nanocavity up to 2.3-fold has been observed at 629.5 nm in compare to bare cavities. High field confinement in the sub-wavelength regime became an interest field for quantum electrodynamics applications and good platform to study light matter interactions.</p> Khalid N. Sediq Copyright (c) 2021 Khalid N. Sediq Tue, 02 Nov 2021 13:43:11 +0000 Comparative Quality Analysis between Tap Water and Bottled Water <p>Recently, bottled water consumption has been increasing significantly, even when the quality of tap water is considered excellent, which contributes to plastic pollution. Besides, reducing the use of plastic generally is recommended world widely, as its consumption is in an alarming rate. Therefore, this study aims to compare the tap and bottled water and manifest the reasons behind choosing the bottled water, which is less comfortable and often more expensive over the tap water. In this study, samples have been taken from both bottled and tap water in Koya city from November 2020 to May 2021 to test their quality using PH, DO, EC, and TDS meter, hardness was determined by complexometric titration method at 21°C, and XRF spectrometers. According to the quality standards, most of the variables were in a permissible range, except for dissolved oxygen and Aluminum content in both types of water and TDS for two types of bottled water. However, the quality of tap water was much safer to be used, as compared with the bottled water.&nbsp;</p> Hanaa A. Muhammad, Khalid N. Sediq, Kwestan H. Sdiq Copyright (c) 2021 Hanaa A. Muhammad, Khalid N. Sediq, Kwestan H. Sdiq Mon, 08 Nov 2021 06:56:58 +0000 The Study of Optical and Electrical Properties of Nanostructured Silicon Carbide Thin Films Grown by Pulsed-Laser Deposition <p>In this paper, nanostructured silicon carbide (SiC) thin films are deposited onto glass substrate using pulsed laser deposition technique. Electrical and optical characterizations such as conductivity, resistivity, transmission, Seeback effect, absorption, absorption coefficient, energy band gap, and extinction coefficient as a function of photon energy, and the effect of thin films thickness on transmission are carried out to characterize the prepared samples. Results showed that the prepared SiC thin film is an n-type semiconductor with an indirect bandgap of ~3 eV, 448 nm cutoff wavelength, 3.4395 × 104 cm<sup>−1</sup> absorption coefficient and 0.154 extinction coefficient. The surface morphology of the SiC thin films is studied using scanning electron microscope at a substrate temperature of 400 °C and it is found that the grain size of the prepared SiC thin film is about 30 nm. As such, the nano thin films optical and structural characteristics enable the films to be used as gases sensors in many optoelectronic devices such as the environment and ultraviolet photodiode.</p> Muhanad A. Ahmed, Mohammed F. Mohammed Sabri, Wathiq R. Abed Copyright (c) 2021 Mohammed F. Mohammed Sabri, Muhanad A. Ahmed, Wathiq R. Abed Wed, 10 Nov 2021 16:56:00 +0000 Seroprevalence of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome-Coronavirus-2 Immunoglobulin M and Immunoglobulin G Antibodies among the Population of Koya University <p>Coronavirus is a pandemic disease. In most cases, the exact infection rate cannot be determined as not everybody can be tested for the virus, even though some of them carry the virus silently. Therefore, detection of antibodies of this virus is more practical to give us a better clue about the rate of infection because the asymptomatic people can be tested too. The serological detection of anti-Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome-Coronavirus (SARS-COV-2) antibodies among asymptomatic and moderate symptomatic individuals gives us the vital point to understanding the prevalence rate of COVID-19 among the population. Total of (436) volunteers were participated, (96) from teaching staff, (172) employee, and (168) students. Anti-SARS-COV-2 immunoglobulin G (IgG) and Immunoglobulin M (IgM) were detected in the serum by ELISA technique, and complete blood count was performed for all participants. The number of seropositive of anti-SARS-COV-2/IgG was (159), whereas IgM was (66). The highest prevalence rate of IgG detected among participants with family member infected with coronavirus (42.7%). Total WBCs count significantly increased among IgM positive participants. Many asymptomatic people were infected with coronavirus, which lead to more spreading of the virus among the population. Therefore, mass screening of the population for specific antibody against coronavirus is important to reduce the infection rate.</p> Safia S. I. Blbas, Hiwa A. Ahmad, Dawan J. Hawezy, Hemn Shawgery, Hersh N. Bahadin Copyright (c) 2021 Safia S. I. Blbas, Hiwa A. Ahmad, Dawan J. Hawezy, Hemin Shawgery, Hersh N. Bahadin Mon, 22 Nov 2021 19:07:25 +0000 Preparation and Characterization of Green Fe3 O4 Nanoparticle Using the Aqueous Plant Extract of Gundelia tournefortii L. <p>In this work, the magnetite nanoparticles (Fe<sub>3</sub>O<sub>4</sub>-NPs) synthesized using a simple, fast, and environmentally acceptable green approach. Gundelia Tournefortii Extract, an aqueous plant extract, was used for the first time in green synthesis to prepare nanoparticles as reducing, capping, and stabilizing agents. Such biomolecules as flavonoids, alkaloids, and antioxidants are found in the aqueous leaf extract, and their presence has been determined to have an important role in the synthesis of Fe<sub>3</sub>O<sub>4</sub>-NPs. The techniques used in this analysis include Fourier Transform Infrared, Scanning Electron Microscopy, Energy-Dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, X-ray Diffraction, Transmission Electron Microscopy, and Vibrating Sample Magnetometer. The Vibrating Sample Magnetometer demonstrated that the samples were superparamagnetic, with a magnetization value of 48.6 emu/g. The prepared nanoparticle was applied to&nbsp; remove Chrystal Violet (CV), Malachite Green(MG), and Safranin (S) dyes from prepared aqueous solutions with the adsorption capacity of 13.9, 15.6, and 14.4 mg/g respectively.</p> Aveen F. Jalal, Nabil A. Fakhre Copyright (c) 2021 Aveen F. Jalal, Nabil A. Fakhre Wed, 01 Dec 2021 15:45:40 +0000 Categorization of Bacterial Pathogens Present in Infected Wounds and their Antibiotic Resistance Profile Recovered from Patients Attending Rizgary Hospital-Erbil <p class="Abstract" style="margin-top: 0in; text-indent: 0in; line-height: 200%;"><span style="font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 200%;">Wound infection with antibiotic-resistant bacteria can extend a patients’ debility and increase the expense of treatment in the long term; therefore, careful management of patients with wound infections is necessary to avoid complications. The usage of antimicrobial agent is a major factor in resistance development. This study aims to understand the causes of wound infections, as well as the criteria for diagnosing them for more sensible antibiotic prescribing. Samples from 269 wound patients were collected, and cultured for bacterial growth. Gram stain technique, bacterial identification via VITEK 2 compact system were investigated in this study. Gram negative bacteria accounted for 59.15% of the total isolates, while pathogenic gram positive bacteria accounted for 40.85% of total isolates. <em>Escherichia coli</em> and <em>Pseudomonas aeruginosa</em> are the dominant pathogenic gram negative bacteria in wounds, while <em>Staphylococcus aureus</em>, and <em>Staphylococcus epidermidis</em> are the dominant pathogenic gram positive bacteria. <em>Pseudomonas aeruginosa</em> showed 100% resistance to the majority of antibiotic tested, including Ampicillin, Amoxicillin/Clavulanic Acid, Aztreona, Ceftriaxone, and others. <em>Staphylococcus aureus</em> and <em>Staphylococcus epidermidis</em> are 100% resistant to Ampicillin, Ceftriaxone, and Cefotaxime. For more efficient antibiotic prescriptions, the causative microorganisms, and their current susceptibility patterns need to be mandated for testing before prescribing any antibiotics to patients. Prescriptions are frequently based solely on general information about the antibiotic's function, rather than on individual response variation to the pathogen and the antibiotic. Particularly when the common pathogens in this study show multidrug resistance in wounds. </span></p> Ahmed A. Al-Naqshbandi, Hedy A. Hassan, Mahmoud A. Chawsheen, Haval H. Abdul Qader Copyright (c) 2021 Ahmed A. Al-Naqshbandi, Hedy A. Hassan, Mahmoud A. Chawsheen, Haval H. Abdul Qader Wed, 01 Dec 2021 16:00:37 +0000 First Principle Calculations for Silver Halides AgBr, AgCl, and AgF <p>Density functional theory (DFT) coupled with ) method are carried out to calculate the electronic structures of AgX (X; Br, Cl, and F). The effect of hybridizing between 4d orbital of Ag element and the p orbitals of the X in the valence band plays a very important role in the total density of states configuration. The electronic structure has been studied and all results were compared with the experimental and theoretical values. The importance of this work is that there is insufficient studies of silver halides corresponding the great importance of these compounds. Almost all the results were consistent with the previous studies mentioned here. We found the band gap of AgX to be 2.343 eV, 2.553 eV, and 1.677 eV for AgBr, AgCl, and AgF respectively which are in good agreement with the experimental results. &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Akram H. Taha Copyright (c) 2021 Akram H. Taha Fri, 03 Dec 2021 10:32:37 +0000 Reducing Environment Pollution by Reusing of Alum Sludge Waste in Stone Mastic Asphalt Mixtures <p>Globally, a huge quantity of alum sludge waste is produced as a by-product material from drinking water treatment plants that utilize aluminum salts as an essential coagulate and is the most generally produced water treatment remaining sludge around the world, which causes a serious environmental problem. Direct discarding of this substance has ecological effects. Hence, it is important to reuse this alum sludge waste material in such a manner to diminish its detrimental impacts on the environment. This research investigates the possibility of reusing alum sludge waste as a partial replacement of cement filler in stone mastic asphalt (SMA) paving mixtures. For this investigation, the alum sludge was used as a filler material in SMA mixtures in two modes; dried alum sludge at 110°C and burned alum sludge at 700°C. Different percentages of alum sludge were used as a replacement by the total weight of mineral filler at 0, 20, 40, 60, 80, and 100%. The results showed that using alum sludge as a substitution of filler in SMA mixtures reduces the performance of the mixtures in terms of Marshall properties and tensile strength for both dried and burned alum sludge compared with a standard mix. However, the performance of the mixtures containing burned alum sludge gave a better performance than the mixtures containing dried alum sludge.</p> Omar T. Mahmood Copyright (c) 2021 Omar T. Mahmood Tue, 07 Dec 2021 09:14:06 +0000 Design and Analysis of a Wide Stopband Microstrip Dual-band Bandpass Filter <p>A novel configuration of a dual-band bandpass filter (BPF) working as a harmonic attenuator is introduced and fabricated. The proposed filter operates at 3 GHz, for UHF and SHF applications, and 6.3 GHz, for wireless applications. The presented layout has a symmetric structure, which consists of coupled resonators. The designing of the proposed resonator is performed by introducing a new LC equivalent model of coupled lines. To verify the LC model of the coupled lines, the lumped elements are calculated. The introduced filter has a wide stopband up to 85 GHz with 28th harmonic suppression, for the first channel, and 13th harmonic suppression, for the second channel. The harmonics are attenuated using a novel structure. Also, the proposed BPF has a compact size of 0.056 λg2. Having several transmission zeros (TZs) that improve the performance of the presented BPF is another feature. The proposed dual-band BPF is fabricated and measured to verify the design method, where the measurement results confirm the simulations.</p> Salah I. Yahya, Abbas Rezaei, Yazen A. Khaleel Copyright (c) 2021 Salah I. Yahya, Abbas Rezaei, Yazen A. Khaleel Wed, 15 Dec 2021 18:58:41 +0000 Chemical Composition and Cytotoxic Activity of Pistacia atlantica var. kurdica Fruits <p>Pistacia atlantica var. kurdica (Anacardiaceae) is a major subspecies found in the Kurdistan region of Iraq and has several beneficial bioactivities such as antioxidant, antibacterial, and antiviral. P. atlantica growing in the Kurdistan region is not yet studied phytochemically and pharmacologically. Hence, the goal of the present study is to characterize chemical compounds present in ethanolic extract of P. atlantica fruits by gas chromatography–mass spectroscopy (GC–MS) and to evaluate cytotoxic activity using A549 (human lung cancer) cell lines by (3-4,5 dimethylthiazol-2yl2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide) assay. The GC–MS analysis shows the presence of 33 chemical compounds which constitute about 99.95% of total compounds, and isospathulenol (14.63%), spathulenol (13.45%), α-terpineol (13.28%), limonene (10.92%), terpinolene (10.89%), β-myrcene (6.92%), ethyl pentadecanoate (6.15%), β-pinene (4.98%), and caryophyllene oxide (4.01%) were found as major chemical compounds. P. atlantica inhibits cell proliferation in A549 cell lines in a time (24 h) and dose-dependent manner (0.5–500 µg/mL). After 24 h of treatment with P. atlantica, the cell viability of A549 cell lines ranged from 93.01 ± 5.24 to 57.69 ± 4.15% for concentrations of 0.5–500 µg/mL, respectively. This study expands the knowledge of the chemical composition of P. atlantica fruits and provides scientific evidence for its possible use as an anticancer medicine. The substantial anticancer activity of P. atlantica fruits may be due to the presence of isospathulenol, spathulenol, α-terpineol, limonene, terpinolene, β-myrcene, ethyl pentadecanoate, β-pinene, and caryophyllene oxide.</p> Raad A. Kaskoos, Javed Ahamad, Subasini Uthirapathy Copyright (c) 2021 Raad A. Kaskoos, Javed Ahamad, Subasini Uthirapathy Wed, 15 Dec 2021 19:22:29 +0000 A Review of the Development and Applicability of Double-Skin Facades in Hot Climates <p>A double-skin façade (DSF) is a multilayered skin that was initially designed for the cold climate of European countries with noticeable success. Since then, countries in different climates started looking into the possibility of adopting DSF through the use of computer simulations to avoid any unforeseen problems in real life. This study aims to look into the possibility and level of success in using DSF in the Middle East’s hot-arid climate, making it a challenge compared to European countries. The study utilized a quantitative investigative approach in analyzing the results of some studies done in different countries in the Middle East. After looking into the results from different papers, careful considerations have to be made for the building due to its location and microclimate to<br>determine specific parameters (e.g., combination of transparent and opaque materials, proportion between floor level and screen height, orientation and cavity depth), these would lead to a significant impact on reducing a building’s cooling loads and energy efficiency. It is worth noting that mechanical ventilation (e.g., supplying all return cool air from internal spaces into the DSF cavity or integrating the building’s heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning system with the façade) is necessary for DSF in hot climates to cool and maintain its cavity’s temperature to function properly. However, this increases cooling loads, energy consumption, and running costs of the building which architects have to consider to determine the most efficient and economical solution in material and equipment.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Aare N. Abtar Copyright (c) 2021 Aare N. Abtar Mon, 20 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Flood Modeling on Koya Catchment Area Using Hyfran, Web Map Service, and HEC-RAS Software <p>In this research, The boundaries of the Koya catchment area have been delineated, and valley paths in the region were drawn by using the Water Modeling System (WMS) software, Analysis of the morphometric information indicated that the morphometric characteristics of watersheds contribute to the floods. The average surface runoff depth depends on the curve number values that are determined based on the types of soil cover and soil class according to Harmonized World Soil Database HWSD software that indicates the soil class in the study area are Group B silt loam,&nbsp; The results obtained also show that the potential for surface runoff varies with land use and soil characteristics. Also, the value of the curve number (CN) was determined to be 71. The hydrological modeling was performed by the HEC-HMS program that simulates the process of rainfall to runoff using the SCS curve number model. A flood hydrograph was constructed at the catchment area outlet and the floodplain delineation was verified by the HEC-RAS software. The results indicated that the 100-year return period flood could Reach critical areas such as the urban area, agricultural area, residential areas. the results of this study indicate that there are suitable sites in the catchment areas for constructing small dams and ponds for water harvesting.&nbsp;</p> Anwer H. Dawood, Dana K. Mawlood, Nadhir Al-Ansari Copyright (c) 2021 Anwer H. Dawood, Dana K. Mawlood, Nadhir Al-Ansari Sat, 25 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Contact Geometrical Study for Top Emitting 980 nm InGaAs/GaAsP Vertical-Cavity Surface Emitting Lasers <p>Geometrical contacts of a double mesa structure with 16 rows ×15 columns arrays of top emitting GaAs based 980 nm vertical cavity surface emitting lasers (VCSELs) are fabricated and characterized. In this paper, 5 strained In<sub>0.22</sub>Ga<sub>0.78</sub>As/Ga<sub>0.9</sub>AsP<sub>0.1</sub> quantum wells (QWs) within λ/2 thick cavity have been employed. The top and the bottom epitaxially grown mirrors are based on the linear graded Al<sub>0.9</sub>Ga<sub>0.1</sub>As/GaAs distributed Bragg reflectors (DBRs) with 20.5 and 37 periods, respectively. Static parameters including threshold currents, rollover currents, maximum optical output power and wall-plug efficiency are extracted from light out power-current-voltage (<em>LIV</em>) of VCSELs with fixed oxide aperture diameter of ∅~ 6 <em>μ</em>m and various mesa2 diameters. In addition, spectral emission for 980 nm VCSELs of oxide aperture between ∅~ 6 and 19 <em>μ</em>m and with fixed ∅~ 6 <em>μ</em>m and different bias currents are analyzed. The highest optical output power of around 33 dBm is observed at bias current of 0.8 mA for short−reach optical interconnect applications.</p> Faten A. Chaqmaqchee Copyright (c) 2021 Faten A. Chaqmaqchee Sun, 26 Dec 2021 09:12:29 +0000