The Plant Regulator Soaking Seeds and its Reflections on Growth and Yield Quality of Wheat

Mohammed Q. Khursheed, Trifa Z. Saber, Tara M. Hassan


A greenhouse pot experiment was carried out during November 2013 to May 2014. Winter wheat grains (Triticum aestivum L.), cultivars Abu-Ghureb and Cham6 were used to investigate the effect of soaking seeds in 300ppm of benzyl adenine (BA) or daminozide solutions for 6 hours before sowing vegetative, yield components, leaf chlorophylls and some chemical constituents of seeds. BA treatment led to significant increases in tiller number plant-1, chlorophyll b, P, dry gluten, N and protein contents of seeds. It also led to significant decreases in number of leaves plant-1. In addition, the number of tillers plant-1, shoots dry weight plant-1, P, N and protein contents of seeds were increased by daminozide treatment, but this caused a significant decrease in the plant height, number of leaves plant-1 and flag leaf area. Number of grains plant-1, weight of 1000 grains and grains yield were significantly increased by both treatments. Cultivar variability was noted for some tested parameters. The tall, N, P content and protein content of Abu-Ghureb cultivar were higher significantly than Sham6. The case was opposite with number of leaves plant-1, flag leaf area, shoots dry weight plant-1, spike length and grain number plant-1.


BA, Daminozide, wheat (Triticumaestivum L.).

Full Text:



Abdul, K.S. and Mohamad, A.K., 1986. Vegeنوبه شمالي Physiology. Directorate of Dar- Ell-Kutub for Printing and Publishing, University of Mosul, pp.282 (In Arabic).

Al-Barzinji, I.M., Khudhur, S.A. and Abdulrahman, N.M., 2015, Effects of Some Dates, Pre-treatment Sowing, Soil Texture and Foliar Spraying of Zinc on Seedling of Dalbergia sissoo (Roxb.). ARO-The Scientific Journal of Koya University, 3(1), pp.14-22. Retrieved from

Craig, B. F., Juge, N. and Svensson B., 2009. Enzymes in grain processing. Journal of Cereal Science, 50(3), pp.305-414.

Crosby, K.E., L.H. Aung and G.L. Buss, 1981. Influence of 6-Benzyl aminopurine on fruit-set and seed development in two soybean (Glycinemax L.) merr. genotypes. Plant Physiology, 68(5), pp.985-988.

Giannakoula, A.E., Jelena, I.I. and Maksimovic, J.D., 2012. The effects of plant growth regulators on growth, yield, and phenolic profile of lentil plants. Journal of Food Composition and Analysis, 28(1), pp.46–53.

Gumani, A.R., Bano, A. and Salim, M.. 2007. Effect of abscisic acid and benzyladenine on growth and iron accumulation of wheat under salinity stress. Pakistan J. of Botany, 39(1),pp.141-149.

Hazarika, B.N., 2003. Acclimatization of tissue culture plants. Current Science, 85(12), pp.1704-1712.

Hopkins, W.G., 1999. Introduction to Plant Physiology, 2nd edition, John Wiley and Sons, Inc., U.S.A.

Hunt, R., 1982. Plant Growth Curves the Functional Approach to Plant Growth Analysis. First published by Edwared Arnold L.T.D.. London. pp.172-173.

Kalra, Y.P., 1998. Reference Method for Plant Analysis. Taylor and Francis Group, LLC., pp.153-155.

Mehrotra, O.N., R.K. Mathur and R.S. Tripathi, 1983. Effect of growth regulators on wheat. Indian Journal of Agricultural Research, 17(1-2),pp.57-61.

Mok, M.C., Martin, R. C. and Mok, D.W.S., 2000. Cytokinins: Biosynthesis, Metabolism and Perception. In Vitro Cell. Dev. Biol.Plant, 36, pp.102–107.

Rayan, J., Estefan, G. and Rashid, A., 2001. Soil and Plant Analysis Laboratory Manual. 2nd Edition. National Agriculture Research Center (NARC) Islamabad, Pakistan. pp.231-234.

Rathod, R.R., Gore, R.V. and Bothikar, P.A., 2015. Effect of Growth Regulators on Growth and Yield of French bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) Var. Arka Komal. Journal of Agriculture and Veterinary Science, 8(5), pp.36-39.

Sakakibra, H., 2006. Cytokinins: activity, biosynthesis, and translocation. Annual Revew of Plant Biology, 57, pp.431–49.

Schmulling, T., 2004. Cytokinin. In Encyclopedia of Biological Chemistry (Eds. Lennarz, W., Lane, M.D.) Academic Press/Elsevier Science. pp.27-29.

Scott, T.K., Case, D.B. and Jaccobs, W.P., 1967. Auxin and gibberrelin interactions in apical dominance. Plant Physiology, 42(10), pp.1329-1333.

Simas, G., Tamosiunas, A. and Stuopytr, L., 2007. Effect of some growth regulators on chlorophyll fluorescence in Viola x wittrockiana 'Wesel Ice.' Biologia, 53(2), pp.24-27.

Sorte, N.V., Deotale, R.D., Gajbhiye, D.T. and Kene, D.R., 1991. Effect of growth retardant (Alar) on morpho-physiological characters and yield wheat. Journal of Social and Crop, 1(1), pp.40-46.

Tzortzakis, N.G., 2009. Effect of pre-sowing treatment on seed germination and seedling vigour in endive and chicory. Hort. Sci., 36(3), pp.117–125.

Williams, P., El-Haramein, F.J., Nakkoul, H. and Rihawi, S., 1988. Crop Quality Evolution Methods and Guidelines, 2nd edition, (ICARDA), Aleppo, Syria. pp.367-369.

Wintermans, J.F. and Demote, A., 1965. Spectrophotometry characteristics of chlorophyll (a) and (b) and their phytophytins in ethanol. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Biophysics including Photosynthesis, 109, pp.448-453.

Yang, J.S., Zhang, J.H., Wang, Z.Q., Zhu, Q.S. and Liu, L.J., 2003. Involvement of abscisic acid and cytokinins in the senescence and remobilization of carbon reserves in wheat subjected to water stress during grain filling. Plant Cell and Environment, 26(10), pp.1621-1631.

Yanhai, Z., Xu, X., Simmons, M., Zhang, C., Gao, F. and Li, Z., 2010. Responses of physiological parameters, grain yield, and grain quality to foliar application of potassium nitrate in two contrasting winter wheat cultivars under salinity stress. Journal of Plant Nutrition and Soil Science, 173(3), pp.444-452.

Yari, L., Abbasian, A., Oskouei, B. and Sadeghi, H., 2011. Effect of seed priming on dry matter, seed size and morphological characters in wheat cultivar. Agriculture Biology Journal of North America, 2(2), pp.232-238.

View Counter: Abstract | 672 | and PDF | 297 |

Article Metrics

Metrics Loading ...

Metrics powered by PLOS ALM


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2016 Mohammed Q. Khursheed, Trifa Z. Saber, Tara M. Hassan

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.


ARO Journal is an OAJ supported by Koya University, it has no article submission/processing charges (APCs).
© 2013-2019, Koya University is a public University accredited by the Ministry of Higher Education and Scientific Research, KRG - F.R. Iraq.