ARO is committed to upholding the highest standards of publication ethics and ensuring the integrity of the research process. As a peer-reviewed journal, we adhere to the principles outlined in the Code of Conduct and Best-Practice Guidelines for Journal Editors established by the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE, 2011).

Editors of ARO have a range of general duties and responsibilities to ensure the publication process is conducted ethically and transparently. They maintain strong relationships with readers, authors, editorial board members, journal owners, and publishers. The editorial and peer review processes are carried out with integrity and fairness, while protecting the confidentiality of individual data. Editors are responsible for encouraging ethical research practices, including studies involving human subjects or animals, and addressing any possible misconduct with appropriate measures.

Protecting the integrity of the academic record is a paramount responsibility of ARO. Editors ensure that published articles are accurate, reliable, and supported by sound research methodology. They respect intellectual property rights and uphold the principles of copyright. Furthermore, ARO promotes open and constructive debate within the scholarly community and provides a platform for authors to express their ideas and findings.

The author(s) should declare that all text, data, figures, tables, or other illustrations presented in the manuscript are completely original and do not contain or include material taken from other copyrighted sources, and wherever such material has been included, proper citation is included in the reference section. They should also affirm that the work does not violate any proprietary or personal rights of others.

The journal has established procedures for handling complaints and conflicts of interest, ensuring that they are addressed promptly and fairly. Authors are expected to comply with ethical guidelines and guidelines on conflicts of interest. Any suspected instances of misconduct or breaches of publication ethics are taken seriously and investigated appropriately.
You may visit the GUIDE TO AUTHORS and PEER REVIEW PROCESS pages for more information.

ARO acknowledges the importance of the COPE guidelines in fostering responsible and ethical publishing practices. By adhering to these guidelines, we strive to maintain the trust of our readers, authors, and the wider academic community.

For more information on our publication ethics and publication malpractice policies, please refer to the Code of Conduct and Best-Practice Guidelines for Journal Editors published by the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE, 2011).

Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE). (2011, March 7). Code of Conduct and Best-Practice Guidelines for Journal Editors. Retrieved from

Animal Research

ARO is committed to promoting ethical and responsible research involving animals. For studies conducted on regulated animals, which include all live vertebrates and/or higher invertebrates, it is essential that appropriate approval has been obtained in accordance with international or local laws and regulations. Prior to conducting the research, approval must be obtained from the relevant body, typically an Institutional Review Board or Ethics Committee. Authors are required to provide an ethics statement within the Methods section of their manuscript, providing comprehensive information about the approval process, including the name of the granting organization and the approval reference numbers. If an approval reference number is not available, written approval must be provided as a confidential supplemental information file. It is important to note that research involving non-human primates is subject to specific guidelines outlined in the Weatherall (2006) report, "The Use of Non-Human Primates in Research."

For research conducted on non-regulated animals, authors should provide a statement explaining why ethical approval was not required.

All experimental animals used in the study should have been handled in accordance with the highest standards mandated by the author's institution. We strongly encourage authors to adhere to the guidelines set forth in the "Animal Research: Reporting In Vivo Experiments" (ARRIVE) guidelines developed by the National Centre for the Replacement, Refinement, and Reduction of Animals in Research (NC3Rs). These guidelines provide valuable recommendations for transparent reporting of animal research.

In articles reporting research involving animals, it is important to provide specific and detailed descriptions of the organisms used in the study. Authors should include strain names whenever they are known, helping to ensure clarity and accuracy in reporting.

By adhering to these guidelines and promoting ethical practices in animal research, ARO aims to contribute to the advancement of knowledge while respecting the welfare and ethical considerations related to animal subjects.

Note: It is important for authors to consult and comply with the specific animal research regulations and guidelines applicable in their respective countries and institutions.