The Most Common Characteristics of Fragile Video Watermarking

A Review

Keywords: Fragile watermarking, Video watermarking, Tamper detection, Security, Invisibility


The progress of network and multimedia technologies has been phenomenal during the previous two decades. Unauthorized users will be able to copy, retransmit, modify reproduction, and upload the contents more easily as a result of this innovation. Malicious attackers are quite concerned about the development and widespread use of digital video. Digital watermarking technology gives solutions to the aforementioned problems. Watermarking methods can alleviate these issues by embedding a secret watermark in the original host data, allowing the genuine user or file owner to identify any manipulation. In this study, lots of papers have been analyzed and studied carefully, in the period 2011–2022. The historical basis of the subject should not be forgotten so studying old research will give a clear idea of the topic. To aid future researchers in this subject, we give a review of fragile watermarking approaches and some related papers presented in recent years. This paper presents a comparison of many relevant works in this field based on some of the outcomes and improvements gained in these studies, which focuses on the common characteristics that increase the effect of watermarking techniques such as invisibility, tamper detection, recovery, and security



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Author Biographies

Yasmin A. Hassan, Department of Computer Science, College of Science, University of Baghdad, Baghdad- Iraq

Yasmin A. Hassan is a Lecturer at the Department of Computer Science, College of Science, Baghdad University. She got the B.Sc. and the M.Sc. degree in Computer Science from the University of Baghdad. Her research interests are in security, watermarking, video, and image processing. Yasmin is currently a Ph.D. student at the University of Technology, College of Science, Computer Science Department.

Abdul Monem S. Rahma, Department of Computer science, College of Science, Al-Maarif University College, Al-Anbar- Iraq

Abdul Monem S. Rahma is a Professor at the Department of Computer Science, College of Science, Al-Maarif University College. He got a B.Sc. degree in Computer Science and the Military College of Engineering at the University of Baghdad, an M.Sc. degree in Computer Science from Brunel University, and a Ph.D. degree from Loughborough University of Technology, United Kingdom. His research interests are image processing, biometrics, computer security, and graphics.


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How to Cite
Hassan, Y. A. and Rahma, A. M. S. (2023) “The Most Common Characteristics of Fragile Video Watermarking: A Review”, ARO-THE SCIENTIFIC JOURNAL OF KOYA UNIVERSITY, 11(1), pp. 99-104. doi: 10.14500/aro.11113.
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