Determination of Natural Radioactivity and Radiological Hazards of 226Ra, 232Th, and 40K in the Grains Available at Penang Markets, Malaysia, Using High-purity Germanium Detector
In the present study, the concentrations of 226Ra, 232Th, and 40K and their radiological hazards in 18 types of grain samples, collected from local markets in Penang, Malaysia, are investigated using high-purity germanium detector (HPGe). The results indicated that the concentration of 226Ra, 232Th, and 40K in grain samples was ranged from 56.97 to 86.13 Bq.kg−1, from 34.71 to 52.14 Bq.kg−1, and from 517.05 to 997.59 Bq.kg−1, respectively. The results of the average annual ingestion dose of natural radionuclides of 226Ra, 232Th, and 40K were found to be 66.555, 35.199, and 15.328 μSv y−1, respectively. These results are below the standard worldwide value (290 μSv y−1) that was reported by UNSCEAR. Therefore, the studied samples are considered safe in terms of the radiological health hazards, and there is no health hazard from the grain in this region.
Abdulaziz, A., and El-Taher, A., 2013. A study on transfer factors of radionuclides from soil to plant. Life Science Journal, 2(10), pp.532-539.
Adil, M.H., Abdullah, K.O., Kharman, A.F., and Dara, F.H., 2018. Radon concentration in the work atmosphere of cement plants in the sulaymaniyah area, Iraq. ARO-The Scientific Journal of Koya University, 6(1), pp.7-12.
Adjirackor, T., Darko, E.O., Emi-Reynolds, G., Kpeglo, D.O., Awudu, R., and Owusu, J.B., 2014. Radiological study of soil, fertilizer and foodstuffs in some selected farming communities in the greater Accra region, Ghana. Elixir Nuclear and Radiation Physics, 77, pp. 29112-29118.
Ahmad, N., Jaafar, M., and Alsaffar, M., 2015. Natural radioactivity in virgin and agricultural soil and its environmental implications in Sungai Petani, Kedah, Malaysia. Pollution Journal, 1(3), pp.305-313.
Al-Hamed, S.A., Wahby, M.F., and Aboukarima, A.M. 2017. Evaluation of natural radionuclides, cesium-137 and radiological hazard indices of agricultural soils in Saudi Arabia. Journal of Nuclear Technology in Applied Science, 5(1), pp.27-42.
Al-Masri, M.S., Mukallati, H., Al-Hamwi, A., Khalili, H., Hassan, M., Assaf, H., Amin, Y., and Nashawati, A. 2004. Natural radionuclides in Syrian diet and their daily intake. Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry, 260(2), pp.405-412.
Asaduzzaman, K.H., Mayeen, U.K., Amin, Y.M., Bradley, D.A., Mahat, R.H., and Nor, R.M., 2014. Soil-to-root vegetable transfer factors for226Ra, 232Th, 40K, and88Y in Malaysia. Journal of Environmental Radioactivity, 135, pp.120-127. Available from: http://www.elsevier.com/locate/jenvrad.
Augustine, K.A., Morounfolu, A.O., and Peter, O.A., 2015. Radiological safety assessment and determination of heavy metals in soil samples from some waste dumpsites in Lagos and Ogun state, south-western, Nigeria. Journal of Radiation Research and Applied Sciences, 8(1), pp.148-153.
Awudu, A.R., Faanu, A., Darko, E.O., Emi-Reynolds, G., Adukpo, O.K., Kpeglo, D.O., Otoo, F., Lawluvi, H., Kpodzro, R., Ali, I.D., Obeng, M.K., and Agyeman, B., 2012. Preliminary studies on226Ra, 228Ra, 228Th and40K concentrations in foodstuffs consumed by inhabitants of Accra metropolitan area, Ghana. Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry, 291(3), pp.635-641.
Banzi, F., Msaki, P., and Mohammed, N. 2017. Assessment of radioactivity of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K in soil and plants for estamation of transfer factors and effective dose around Mkuju river project, Tanzania. Mining of Mineral Deposits, 11(3), pp.93-100.
Bashir, G.M., Mohammad, S.J., Azhar, A.R., and Farouk, A.I. 2012. Determination of radioactive elements and heavy metals in sediments and soil from domestic water sources in northern peninsular Malaysia. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 184(3), pp.5043-5049.
Cumhur, C., and Mahmut, D., 2013. A preliminary study on 226Ra, 232Th, 40K and 137Cs activity concentrations in vegetables and fruits frequently consumed by inhabitants of Elazıg˘ Region, Turkey. Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry, 295(2), pp.1245-1249.
Darwish, D.A.E., Abul-Nasr, K.T.M., and El-Khayatt, A.M. 2015. The assessment of natural radioactivity and its associated radiological hazards and dose parameters in granite samples from South Sinai, Egypt. Journal of Radiation Research and Applied Sciences, 8(1), pp. 17-25.
Gabdo, H.T., Ramli, A.T., Saleh, M.A., Sanusi, M.S., Garba, N.N., and Aliyu, A.S., 2015. Radiological hazard associated with natural radionuclide concentrations in the northern part of Pahang state Malaysia. Environmental Earth Sciences,73(10), pp.6271-6281.
Gordana, K.P., Dragana, J.T, Jelena, D.N, Milica, M.R., Marija, M.J., and Natasa, B.S., 2015. Measurement of radioactivity in building materials in Serbia. Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry, 303(3), pp.2517-2522.
Hossain, I., Sharip, N., and Viswanathan, K.K., 2012. Efficiency and resolution of HPGe and NaI(Tl) detectors using gamma-ray spectroscopy. Scientific Research and Essays, Academic Journals, 7(1), pp.86-89.
IAEA. 1989. Measurement of Radionuclides in Food and the Environment. A Guidebook. International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna, Vol. 295. STI/ DOC/10/295 ISBN 92-0-125189-0, ISSN 0074-1914.
Jibiri, N.N., Farai, I.P., and Alausa, S.K. 2007. Activity concentrations of 226Ra, 232Th, and 40K in different food crops from a high background radiation area in Bitsichi, Jos Plateau, Nigeria. Biophysics and Biological Physics, 46(1), pp. 53-59.
Kaleab, B. 2014. Teff: Nutrient composition and health benefits. International food Policy Research Institue, 67, pp.1-20.
Khandaker, M.U., 2011. High purity germanium detector in gamma-ray spectrometry. International Journal of Fundamental Physical Sciences (IJFPS), 1(2), pp.42-46.
Kritsananuwat, R., Chanyotha, S., Kranrod, C., and Pengvanich, P. 2014. Transfer Factor of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K from Soil to Alpinia Galangal Plant Grown in Northern Thailand To Cite this Article: IOP Conference Series: Journal of Physics: Conference Series, 860(1), pp.1-9.
Kritsananuwat, R., Chanyotha, S., Kranrod, C., and Pengvanich, P. 2014. Transfer factor from soil to alpinia galangal plant grown in northern Thailand to cite this article. IOP Conference Series: Journal of Physics: Conference Series, 860, pp. 1-9.
Matthew, T.K., Siti, A., Ab, A., Mayeen, U.K., Asaduzzaman, K., and Yusoff, M.A. 2015. Evaluation of radiological risks due to natural radioactivity around Lynas Advanced Material Plant environment, Kuantan, Pahang, Malaysia. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 22(17), pp.13127-13136.
Mohammad, W., Manzoor, A., and Sajid, I. 2015. Assessment of the risk associated with the gamma-emitting radionuclides from the soil of two cities in Central Karakorum. Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry,303(1), pp.985-991.
Mohammed, S.A., Mohamad, S.J., Norlaili, A.K., and Nisar, A. 2015. Distribution of 226Ra, 232Th, and 40K in rice plant components and physico-chemical effects of soil on their transportation to grains. Journal of Radiation Research and Applied Sciences, 8(3), pp.300-310.
Murat, B., Önder, K., and Yavuz, Ç. 2010. The effects of physicochemical properties on gamma emitting natural radionuclide levels in the soil profile of Istanbul SayhanTopcuo˘glu. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 163(1-4), pp.15-26.
Murtadha, S.H.A., Mohamad, S.J., and Salih, N.F., 2017. Estimation of annual effective dose due to natural radioactivity in ingestion of vegetables from Cameron Highlands, Malaysia. Environmental Technology and Innovation, 8(5), pp.96-102.
Nisar, A., 2015. Natural Radioactivity, Radon Concentration and Heavy Metals in Soil and Water in Kedah Malaysia. PhD Thesis, Doctor of Philosophy, Universitisains Malaysia.
Njinga, R.L., Jonah, S.A., and Gomin, M. 2015. Preliminary investigation of naturally occurring radionuclides in some traditional medicinal plants used in Nigeria. Journal of Radiation Research and Applied Sciences, 1(1), pp.1-8.
Okeme, I.C., Hammed, S.O., Olaluwoye, M.O., Araromi, O.I., and Emeje, K.O. 2017. Determination of activity concentration and radiological parameters of natural radionuclides for soil samples from Kogi State University Staff Nursery and Primary School, Kogi State. Advances in Applied Science Research, 8(1), pp.36-41.
Ononugbo, C.P., Avwiri, G.O., and Ikhuiwu, S.O., 2017.Estimation of naturl radioactivity levels in some food spices commonly used in Nigeria and its radiological risks. Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, 16(3), pp.1-9.
Rafat, M.A., and Fawzia, A. 2013. Estimation of annual effective dose to the adult Egyptian population due to natural radioactive elements in ingestion of spices. Advances in Applied Science Research, 4(5), pp.350-354.
Raymond, L., Njinga, V., and Tshivhase, M., 2016. Lifetime cancer risk due to gamma radioactivity in soils from Tudor Shaft mine environs, South Africa. Science Direct Journal of Radiation Research and Applied Sciences, 9(3), pp.310-315.
Rohit, M., and Pankaj, B. 2014. Assessment of radiation hazards due to the concentration of natural radionuclides in the environment. Environmental Earth Sciences, 71(2), pp.901-909.
Shafaei, M.A., Saion, E., Wood, K., Naghavi, K., and Rezaee, K.H. 2011. Evaluation of 40K in vegetables collected Malaysia by determination total potassium using neutron activation analysis. Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry, 288(10), pp.599-602.
Tawalbeh, A.A., Abumurad K.M., Samat, S.B., and Yasir, M.S. 2011. A study of natural radionuclide activities and radiation hazard index in some grains in Jordan. The Malaysian Journal of Analytical Sciences, 15(1), pp.61-69.
UNSCEAR. 2000. Effects of Ionizing Radiation: Report to the General Assembly. Vol. 2. With Scientific Annexes B, United Nations, New York.
Usikalu, M.R., Akinyemi, M.L., and Achuka, J.A., 2014. Investigation of gamma radiation levels in soil samples collected from some locations in Ogun State, Nigeria. International Conference on Environment Systems Science and Engineering. IERI Procedia Journal, 56(9), pp.156-161.
WHO. 2011. International Food Safety Authorities Network, Information on Nuclear Accidents and Radioactive Contamination of Foods. 20 Avenue Appia Vol. 30. World Health Organization, 1211 Geneva 27, Switzerland, pp.159-165.
Copyright (c) 2018 Najeba F. Salih
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License [CC BY-NC-SA 4.0] that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).