Evaluation of Flying Ad Hoc Network Topologies, Mobility Models, and IEEE Standards for Different Video Applications
Nowadays, drones became very popular with the enhancement of the technological progress of moving devices with a connection to each other, known as Flying Ad Hoc Network (FANET). It is used in most worldwide necessary life scenarios such as video recording, search and rescue, military missions, moving items between different areas, and many more. This leads to the necessity to evaluate different network strategies between these flying drones, which are essential to improve their quality of performance in the field. Several challenges must be addressed to effectively use FANET, to provide stable and reliable transmission for different types of data during vast changing topologies, such as different video sizes, different types of mobility models, recent Wireless Fidelity standards, types of routing protocols used, security problems, and many more. In this paper, a fully comprehensive analysis of FANET will be done to evaluate and enhance these challenges that concern different video types, mobility models, and IEEE 802.11n standards for best performance, by measuring throughput, retransmission attempt, and delay metrics. The result shows that Gauss–Markov mobility model gives the highest result using Ad Hoc On-Demand Vector and lowest delay, whereas for retransmission attempts, 2.4 GHz frequency has the lowest as it can reach more coverage area than 5 GHz.
Adya, A. and Sharma, K.P., 2020. Energy Aware Clustering Based Mobility Model for FANETs. In: Proceedings of ICETIT 2019. Springer, Cham, pp.36-47.
AlKhatieb, A., Felemban, E. and Naseer, A., 2020. Performance evaluation of Ad-Hoc routing protocols in (FANETs). In: 2020 IEEE Wireless Communications and Networking Conference Workshops (WCNCW). IEEE, United States, pp.1-6.
Aziz, T.A.T., Abd Razak, M.R. and Ghani, N.E.A., 2017. The performance of different IEEE802. 11 security protocol standard on 2.4 GHz and 5GHz WLAN networks. In: 2017 International Conference on Engineering Technology and Technopreneurship (ICE2T). IEEE, United States, pp.1-7.
Chriki, A., Touati, H., Snoussi, H. and Kamoun, F., 2019. FANET: Communication, mobility models and security issues. Computer Networks, 163, p.106877.
Deng, C., Fang, X., Han, X., Wang, X., Yan, L., He, R., Long, Y. and Guo, Y., 2020. IEEE 802.11 be Wi-Fi 7: New challenges and opportunities. IEEECommunications Surveys and Tutorials, 22(4), pp.2136-2166.
Deniau, V., Gransart, C., Romero, G.L., Simon, E.P. and Farah, J., 2017. IEEE 802.11 n communications in the presence of frequency-sweeping interference signals. IEEE Transactions on Electromagnetic Compatibility, 59(5), pp.1625-1633.
Dolińska, I., Jakubowski, M. and Masiukiewicz, A., 2017. Interference comparison in Wi-Fi 2.4 GHz and 5 GHz bands. In: 2017 International Conference on Information and Digital Technologies (IDT). IEEE, United States, pp.106-112.
He, Y., Tang, X., Zhang, R., Du, X., Zhou, D. and Guizani, M., 2019. A course-aware opportunistic routing protocol for FANETs. IEEE Access, 7, pp.144303-144312.
Karmakar, R., Chattopadhyay, S. and Chakraborty, S., 2017. Impact of IEEE 802.11 n/ac PHY/MAC high throughput enhancements on transport and application protocols-a survey. IEEE Communications Surveys and Tutorials, 19(4), pp.2050-2091.
Kaur, P. and Singh, A., 2018. Nature-inspired optimization techniques in VANETs and FANETs: A survey. In: Advanced Computational and Communication Paradigms. Springer, Singapore, pp.651-663.
Khan, M.A., Safi, A., Qureshi, I.M. and Khan, I.U., 2017. Flying ad-hoc networks (FANETs): A review of communication architectures, and routing protocols. In: 2017 First International Conference on Latest trends in Electrical Engineering and Computing Technologies (INTELLECT). IEEE, United States, pp.1-9.
Korneev, D.A., Leonov, A.V. and Litvinov, G.A., 2018. Estimation of mini-UAVs network parameters for search and rescue operation scenario with Gauss-Markov mobility model. In: 2018 Systems of Signal Synchronization, Generating and Processing in Telecommunications (SYNCHROINFO). IEEE, United States, pp.1-7.
Li, X., Salehi, M.A., Bayoumi, M. and Buyya, R., 2016. CVSS: A cost-efficient and QoS-aware video streaming using cloud services. In: 2016 16th IEEE/ACM International Symposium on Cluster, Cloud and Grid Computing (CCGrid). IEEE, United States, pp.106-115.
Mahmud, I. and Cho, Y.Z., 2019. Adaptive hello interval in FANET routing protocols for green UAVs. IEEE Access, 7, pp.63004-63015.
Marrogy, G.A.Q., 2020. Enhancing video streaming transmission in 5 GHz fanet drones parameters. Telecommunications and Radio Engineering, 79(11), pp.997-1007.
Qaddus, A., 2019. An Evaluation of 2.4 GHz and 5 GHz ISM radio bands utilization in backhaul IP microwave wireless networks. In: 2019 International Conference on Information Science and Communications Technologies (ICISCT). IEEE, United States, pp.1-5.
QasMarrogy, G.A., 2020. Optimizing video transmission performance in 5GHz MANET. Journal of Duhok University, 23(2), pp.402-411.
QasMarrogy, G.A., 2021. Improving VoIP transmission for IEEE 802.11 n 5GHz MANET. Zanco Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences, 33(1), pp.157-162.
QasMarrogy, G.A., Alqaysi, H.J. and Almashhadani, Y.S., 2017. Comprehensive study of hierarchical routing protocols in MANET using simple clustering. In:
Conference of Cihan University-Erbil on Communication Engineering and Computer Science, p.62.
Sharma, P.K. and Kim, D.I., 2019. Random 3D mobile UAV networks: Mobility modeling and coverage probability. IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications, 18(5), pp.2527-2538.
Srivastava, A. and Prakash, J., 2021. Future FANET with application and enabling techniques: Anatomization and sustainability issues. Computer Science Review, 39, p.100359.
Zheng, Z., Sangaiah, A.K. and Wang, T., 2018. Adaptive communication protocols in flying ad hoc network. IEEE Communications Magazine, 56(1), pp.136-142.
Copyright (c) 2021 Ghassan QasMarrogy
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License [CC BY-NC-SA 4.0] that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).