Determination of Natural Radioactivity and Radiological Hazards of 226Ra, 232Th, and 40K in the Grains Available at Penang Markets, Malaysia, Using High-purity Germanium Detector

Keywords: 226Ra, 40K, Grain gamma rays, Natural Radioactivity, radiological hazards.


In the present study, the concentrations of 226Ra, 232Th, and 40K and their radiological hazards in 18 types of grain samples, collected from local markets in Penang, Malaysia, are investigated using high-purity germanium detector (HPGe). The results indicated that the concentration of 226Ra, 232Th, and 40K in grain samples was ranged from 56.97 to 86.13−1, from 34.71 to 52.14−1, and from 517.05 to 997.59−1, respectively. The results of the average annual ingestion dose of natural radionuclides of 226Ra, 232Th, and 40K were found to be 66.555, 35.199, and 15.328 μSv y−1, respectively. These  results are below  the standard worldwide value (290 μSv y−1) that was  reported by UNSCEAR. Therefore, the studied samples are considered safe in terms of the radiological health hazards, and there is no health hazard from the grain in this region.


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Author Biography

Najeba F. Salih, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science and Health, Koya University, Kurdistan Region

Najeba F. Salih is a Lecturer, joined the Department of Physics at Koya University in 2008. She has a B.Sc. degree in Physics from University of Salahadden, Erbil, Iraq, M.Sc. degree in Radiation physics from University of Koya, Erbil, Iraq, Ph.D. in Radiation dosimetry and Radiation protection in Medical Physics from Universiti Sains Malaysia, and Pd.S. in Nuclear radiation and Gamma spectrometers in Medical Physics from Universiti Sains Malaysia. She has many scientific publications; (33) Journal Articles and (3) conference papers. Her research interests include; Medical Physics, Nuclear Radiation, Dosimeter applications.


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How to Cite
Salih, N. F. (2018) “Determination of Natural Radioactivity and Radiological Hazards of 226Ra, 232Th, and 40K in the Grains Available at Penang Markets, Malaysia, Using High-purity Germanium Detector”, ARO-THE SCIENTIFIC JOURNAL OF KOYA UNIVERSITY, 6(1), pp. 71-77. doi: 10.14500/aro.10327.