Assessment of Some Clay Deposits from Fatha Formation (M. Miocene) for Brick Manufacturing in Koya Area, NE Iraq

Nawzat R. Ismail, Hemn M. Omar


This paper deals with the evaluation of physical, chemical and mineralogical properties of claystone sediments of Miocene age (Fatha Formation) and their suitability to use them as raw materials in manufacturing of building clay brick in Kurdistan (Koya city). The study based on the field reconnaissance for three sites of claystones which were selected from three different locations within Fatha Formation in Koya city, includes Haibat-Sultan area, Koya-Sulaimania road and central of Koya city. The clay samples were subjected to particle size distribution, chemical composition, mineralogical analysis, plasticity index and XRD tests. Clay tiles were produced by using Semi-dry method under load 78 kN/mm² and fired at 950 C°. The produced clay tiles were subjected to water absorption, efflorescence, shrinkage and compressive strength tests. The research has shown that the plasticity index depends on the mineral composition of the raw materials. The grain size analysis of raw materials, physical properties and mechanical properties of the produced tiles has shown the suitability of the used raw materials in producing class bricks of class A (first class) according to the requirements of specification of the Iraqi Standard (1993).


Clay brick, physical properties, plasticity, X-ray diffraction

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