Effects of Some Dates, Pre -treatment Sowing, Soil Texture and Foliar Spraying of Zinc on Seedling of Dalbergia sissoo (Roxb.)

  • Ikbal M. Al-Barzinji Department of Biology, Faculty of Science and Health, Koya University, University Park, Danielle Mitterrand Boulevard, Koya KOY45, Kurdistan Region.
  • Sargul A. Khudhur Department of Biology, Faculty of Science and Health, Koya University, University Park, Danielle Mitterrand Boulevard, Koya KOY45, Kurdistan Region.
  • Nashat M. Abdulrahman College of Agriculture, Salahaddin University, Kurdistan Region.
Keywords: Dalbergia sissoo, seeds germination, shisham, soil texture, Zn-spray


Three experiments were conducted from the beginning of March to the end of October, 2012, in a field condition in Koya city-Iraqi Kurdistan region on shisham Dalbergia sissoo (Roxb.) trees. First experiment was laid out to study the effects of three date of sowing (15 of March, April and May), and six pre- treatments on seed germination of D. sissoo (Roxb.). The Results show that the best time of sowing for good seed germination was 15 of April. Highest germination rate was found when both sides of the pod were cut with soaking in tap water for 24 h. Second experiment was conducted to study the effects of three transplanting soil textures (clay, sandy and sandy clay (1:1) on seedling survival and some growth characteristics. Results indicates that D. sissoo gave better seedling survive rate, seedling leaves and height in sandy clay and sandy soils compared to clay soil. Third experiment was laid out to study the effects of foliar application of zinc (0, 57 and 114 ppm) sprayed on D. sissoo plants growing in clay, sandy and sandy clay (1:1) soils. Zinc application caused a significant increase in most vegetative growth characteristics. Treatments significantly increased leaves phosphorus, sulphate and zinc content compared to control. Most promising results were obtained from seedlings sprayed with zinc and grown in sandy clay soil.


Download data is not yet available.

Author Biographies

Ikbal M. Al-Barzinji, Department of Biology, Faculty of Science and Health, Koya University, University Park, Danielle Mitterrand Boulevard, Koya KOY45, Kurdistan Region.
Ikbal M. Tahir was a researcher in the State Board for Agricultural Research in Baghdad for fifteen years, then a lecturer in the college of Agriculture in Koya University for four academic years and finally an assistant professor in the biology department in the Faculty of Science and Health at Koya University since 2012 -2013 academic year. She has a MSc. and Ph.D degrees from Baghdad University in Horticulture field in the plant and post-harvest physiology. She has many researches in agriculture field.
Sargul A. Khudhur, Department of Biology, Faculty of Science and Health, Koya University, University Park, Danielle Mitterrand Boulevard, Koya KOY45, Kurdistan Region.
Department of Biology, Faculty of Science and Health.
Nashat M. Abdulrahman, College of Agriculture, Salahaddin University, Kurdistan Region.
College of Agriculture,


Ahmadloo, F., Tabari, M., Yousefzadeh, H., Kooch,Y. and Rahmani, A., 2012. Effects of soil nutrient on seedling performance of Arizona cypress and mediate cypress. Ann. Biol. Res., 3(3), pp.1369-1380.

Al-A'areji, J.M. and Al-Hamadany, R.E., 2009. Studying the response of coronet Peach transplants to foliar spray with Zinc and Ascorbic acid. Al-Rafidain. J. Agric., 37(2), pp.86-96.

Al-Imam, N.M. and Al-Jubury, Y.M., 2008. Response of Aleppo pistachio transplants CV. Ashoury (Pistacia vera L.) to different growing media and spray with Gibberellic acid and Zinc: on growth and some minerals concentration in leave. Al-Rafidain. J. Agric., 36(4), pp.4-16.

Allen, S.E., Grimshaw, H.M., Parkanson, J.A., and Qumby, C., 1974. Chemical Analysis of Ecoligical Materials.1st Ed. Oxford. Black Well Scientific Publications.

Al-Sahaf, F.H., 1989. Applied Plant Nutrition. Baghdad, Al-Hikma House. (In Arabic).

A.O.A.C., 1970. Official Methods of Analysis. 11th Edition. Washington, D.C. Association of the Official Analytical Chemis.

Artik, C., 2005. The effects of gamma radiation on some plant characteristics and seed yield of faba bean (Vicia faba L.) in M1 and M2 generations. MSc. thesis, Ondokuz Mayis University, Samsun-Turkey.

Ayad, H.S., Reda, F. and Abdulla, M.S., 2010. Effect of putrescine and Zinc on vegetative growth, photosynthetic pigments, lipid peroxidation and essential oil content of germination (Pelargonium graveolens L.). World. J. Agric. Sci., 6(5), pp.601-608.

Bharath, M., Tulasi, E.L., Sudhakar, K. and Eswaraiah, M., 2013. Dalbergia sissoo - an important medicinal plant. Int. J. of Res. in Pharmacy and Chemistry, 3(2), pp.384-388.

Caglar, S., Sutyemez, M. and Bayazit, S., 2004. Stomatal density in some selected walnut (Juglans regia) types. J. Fac. Agric. Akdeniz Univ., 17(2), pp.169-174.

Dickinson, K., O’Brien, J, Voet, L. and Edwards, T. 2003. Metalosate “zinc in plant nutrition”. Albion., 4(2), pp.1-4.

Geply, O.A., Baiyewu, R.A., Adegoke, I.A., Ayodele, O.O. and Ademola, I.T., 2011. Effect of different pot sizes and growth media on the agronomic performance of Jatropha curcas. Pakistan J. of Nutrition., 10(10), pp.952-954.

Gupta, P.K., 2004. Soil, Water, Plant and Fertilizer Analysis. 4th Edition. Rajsthan, Agrobios publishing house.

Idrees, B.S., and Mohammed, S.M., 2014. Physiological characteristics of Dalbergia melanoxylon and Dalbergia sissoo seeds. J. of Nat. Resour. And Inviron., 2(2), pp.20-28.

James, A.R. and Michael, R.E., 2009. Growing media for container production in green house or nursery. Agriculture and Natural Resources. Available at: <https://www.uaex.edu/publications/PDF/FSA-6097.pdf> [Accessed 17 June 2014]

Joslyn, M.A., 1970. Method in Food Analysis Physical, Chemical and Instrumental Methods of Analysis 2nd Edition. New York, Academic press.

Kalra,Y. P., 1998. Reference Method for Plant Analysis. Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.

Khalifa, R.K., Shaaban, S.H.A. and Rawia, A., 2011. Effect of foliar application of Zinc Sulfate and Boric acid on growth, yield and chemical constituents of Iris Plants. Ozean J. Appl. Sci., 4(2), pp.129-144.

Khera, N. and Singh, R.P., 2005. Germination of some multipurpose tree species in five provenances in response to variation in light, temperature, substrate and water stress. Int. Soc. Tropi. Ecol., 46(2), pp.203-217.

Kusmana, C., 2010. The growth of Rhizophora mucronata and Avicennia marina seedlings planted using guludan technique in coastal area of Jakarta. In: 5th Kyoto University Southeast Asia Forum, Conference of the Earth and Space Sciences, Bandung Technolgy Institute, 7-8 January 2010, Bandung.

Lal, H.S. and Singh, S., 2012. Ethnomedicinal uses of Dalbergia sissoo Roxb in Jharkhand. Int. J. Ayurvedic and Herbal Medicine, 2(1), pp.198-201.

Mazhar, A.A. ., Abd El- Aziz, N.G. and Habba, E., 2010. Impact of different soil media on growth and chemical constituents of Jatropha curca L. seedlings grown under water regime. J. Amer. Sci., 6(8), pp.549-556.

Obaid, E. and Al-Hadethi, M., 2013. Effect of foliar application with manganese and zinc on pomegranate growth, yield and fruit quality. J. Hort. Sci. & Ornamental Plants, 5(1), pp.41-45.

Peksen, E.M., Peksin, A. and Artik, C., 2006. Comparison of leaf and stomatal characteristics in Faba bean (Vicia faba L.). Journal of Biological Sciences. 6(2), pp.360-364.

Rai, P. and Mishra, R.M., 2013. Effect of urban air pollution on epidermal traits of road side tree species, Pongamia pinnata (L.) J. Environ. Sci., Toxicology & Food Tech., 2(6), pp.4-7.

Ranganna, S., 1977. Manual of Analysis of Fruit and Vegetable Products. New Delhi, Tata Mc Grow-Hill Publishing Company Limited.

Reza A.H., 2006. Design of Experiments for Agriculture and the Natural Sciences. New York, Chapman & Hall.

Robbins, A.M. , 2004. An outline of tree seed biology. [PDF] Nepal: Based on the text and graphic in: An Outline of Tree Seed Biology with special reference to seed handling in Nepal. Technical Note no. 6. National Tree Seed Project.Availableat:<http://www.worldagroforestry.org/treesandmarkets/tree%20seeds/Further%20reading/Robbins/F120a%20Tree%20seed%20biology.pd >[Accessed 9 June 2013].

Ryan, J. and Rashid, J.E., 2001. Soil and plant analysis laboratory manual. 2nd Edition. Islamabad, National Agriculture Research Center (NARC).

Saha, S., Shilpi, J.A., Mondal, H., Hossain, F., Anisuzzman, M., Hasan, M.M. and Cordell, G.A., 2013. Ethnomedicinal, phytochemical, and pharmacological profile of the genus Dalbergia L. (Fabaceae). Phytopharmacology, 4(2), pp.291-346.

Sah, S.P., Upadhyay, S.K., Pandit, P. and Lilles, J. B., 2003. Effects of soil on sissoo Dalbergia sissoo (Roxb.) growth in a plantation forest of Nepal. Indian Forester, 129(9), pp.1059-1068.

Salisbury, F.B. and Ross, C.W., 1991. Plant Physiology. 4th Edition. California, Wadsworth Publishing Company.

Shaltout, K.H. and Keshta, A.E., 2011. The biology of Egyptian woody perennials, Dalbergia sissoo (Roxb.). Ass. Univ. Bull. Environ. Res., 14(2), pp.131-153.

Sheikh, A.H. and Abdul Matin, M., 2007. Seed morphology and germination studies of Dalbergia sissoo (Roxb.) at nursery stage in Bangladesh. Res. J. Agric. & Biol. Sci., 3(1), pp.35-39.

Sheikh, A.H., Abdul Matin, M. and Nasir Uddin, S., 2006. Seedling growth performance of Dalbergia sissoo (Roxb.) during nursery stage in Bangladesh. J. of Applied Sciences Research., 2(11), pp.1047-1052.

Singh, M.J. and Kaushik, J.C., 2011. Effect of Different Soil Media on Growth Parameter of Four Leguminous Tree Species under Glass House and Nursery. In: Indian Forest Congress 22-25 Nov. 2011. India.

Vishnoi, R., Rajwar, J.S. and Kuniyal, P.C., 2010. Effect of different sand and soil ratios on the growth of Terminalia arjuna. New York Sci. J., 3(11), pp.22-26.

Watson, D.J. and Watson, M.A., 1953. Comparative physiological studies on the growth of field crops. III- Effect of infection with beet yellows and beet mosaic viruses on the growth and yield of the sugar root crop. Ann. Appl. Biol., 40(1), pp.1-37.

Webb, E.L. and Hossain, S.M., 2005. Dalbergia sissoo mortality in Bangladesh plantations: correlations with environmental and management parameters. Forest Ecology Management, 206(1-3), pp.61-69.

How to Cite
Al-Barzinji, I. M., Khudhur, S. A. and Abdulrahman, N. M. (2016) “Effects of Some Dates, Pre -treatment Sowing, Soil Texture and Foliar Spraying of Zinc on Seedling of Dalbergia sissoo (Roxb.)”, ARO-THE SCIENTIFIC JOURNAL OF KOYA UNIVERSITY, 3(1), pp. 14-22. doi: 10.14500/aro.10050.