Phytochemical Constituents of Leaves Essential oils of Achillea fragrantissima (Asteraceae) from Iraq
Essential oils of Achillea fragrantissima extract were prepared and analyzed by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS). A total of 57 phytochemical constituents of chemical compounds were identified in leaves of A. fragrantissima. The major constituents of the essential oil were camphor (34.50%), 1, 8-cineole (14.60%), artemisia ketone (10.25%), and 3-thujanone (7.82%). In addition, 43 components were present at <1%. From the 57 identified compounds, four of them was sesquiterpenes (7.01%), whereas 35 compounds were monoterpenes (61.40%).
Abaas, I.S.; Majeed, M.J. and Majeed, A.H. 2013. Analysis with evaluation of drying temperature on essential oil content of Achillea fragrantissima and Artemisia herb-alba. Int. J. Pharm. Pharm. Sci. 5(3), pp 913-914.
Abdel-Rahman, R.F.; Alqasoumi, S.I., El-Desoky, A.H., Solimand, G.A.; Paré P.W. and Hegazy. M.E. 2015. Evaluation of the anti-inflammatory, analgesic and anti-ulcerogenic potentials of Achillea fragrantissima (Forssk.). South African Journal of Botany,98, pp 122–127.
Adams, R.P. 2007. Identification of essential oil components by gas chromatography mass spectrometry, 4th Ed., Allured Publishing, Carol Stream, Illinois. 2007, pp120.
Ageel, A.M.; Mossa, J.S.; Al-Yahya, M.A.; Al-Said, M.S. and Tariq, M. 1989. Experimental studies on antirheumatic crude drugs used in Saudi traditional medicine. Drugs Exp. Clin. Res., 15, pp 369–372.
Alabdallat, N.G. 2016. In vitro Antisickling Activity of Achillea fragrantissima (Forssk) Sch. Bip (Qaysūm) Methanolic Extract on Sickle Cell Disease. Int. J. Pharm. Sci. Rev. Res., 38(2),pp 248-251.
Alenad, A.M.; Al-Jaber, N.A.; Krishnaswamy, S.; Yakout S.M.; Al-Daghri, N.M. and Alokail, M.S. 2013 Achillea fragrantissima extract exerts its anticancer effect via in-duction of differentiation, cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) cell line K562. Journal of Medicinal Plants Research,7, pp 1561-1567.
Ali-Shtayeh, M.S., Yaniv, Z. and Mahajna, 2000. J. Ethnobotanical survey in the Palestinian area: A classification of the healing potential of medicinal plants. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 73, pp 221-232.
Al-Mustafa, A.H. and Al-Thunibat, O.Y. 2008. Antioxidant activity of some Jordanian medicinal plants used traditionally for treatment of diabetes. Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences, 11, pp 351-358.
Alsohaili, S.A. and Al-fawwaz, A. T. 2014. Composition and antimicrobial activity of Achillea fragrantissima essential oil using food model media. European Scientific Journal,10 (30), pp1857 – 7881.
Bakr, R. O.; Arafa,R.K.; Al-Abd, A. M. and Elshishtawy, H.M. 2014. Phenolics of Achillea fragrantissima growing in Egypt and its cytotoxic activity. J. Med. Plants Res. 8(21), pp 763-771.
Barel, S.; Segal, R. and Yashphe, J. 1991. The antimicrobial activity of the essential oil from Achillea fragrantissima. J. Ethnopharmacol., 33, pp 187– 191.
Batanouny, K.H., Aboutabl, E., Shabana, M., Soliman, F. 1999. Wild medicinal plants in Egypt. 1999, p. 1-56.
Bouaziz, A.; khennouf, S.; Abu zarga, M.; Abdalla, S.; Baghiani, A. and Charef, N.2015. Phytochemical analysis, hypotensive effect and antioxidant properties of Myrtus communis L. growing in Algeria. Asian Pac. J. Trop. Biomed., 5(1), pp 19-28.
Elmann, A., Mordechay, S., Erlank, H., Telerman, A., Rindner, M. and Ofir, R. 2011. Anti-neuroinflammatory effects of the extract of Achillea fragrantissima. BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 11, pp. 98.
El-Shazly, A.M., Hafez, S.S. and Wink, M. 2004. Comparative study of the essential oils and extracts of Achillea fragrantissima (Forssk.) Sch. Bip. and Achillea santolina L. (Asteraceae) from Egypt. Pharmazie 59, pp 226-230.
Farhat, G.N., Affara, N.I. and Gali-Muhtasib, H.U. 2001. Seasonal changes in the composition of the essential oil extract of East Mediterranean sage (Salvia libanotica) and its toxicity in mice. Toxicon, 39, pp 1601- 1605.
Gohari, A.R., Saeidnia, S., Mokhber-Dezfuli, N., Kiuchi, F. A. 2011. review on phytochemistry and medicinal properties of the genus Achillea. Daru. 19, pp 173-186.
Hamdan, I.I. and Afifi, F.U. 2004. Studies on the in vitro and in vivo hypoglycemic activities of some medicinal plants used in treatment of diabetes in Jordanian traditional medicine. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 93, pp 117-121.
Hammad, H.M.; Suzan, A.; Simona-Carmen,M.; Abuhamdah,S; Al-Jaber,F and Afifi. U. 2014. Biological activities of the hydro-alcoholic and aqueous extracts of Achillea fragrantissima (Forssk.) grown in Jordan. Natural Science, 6(1), pp 23-30.
Hazem, A.; Al-Charchafchi, F. and Ghazzawi, D. 2012. Biochemical, antibacterial and antifungal activity of extracts from Achillea fragrantissima and evaluation of volatile oil composition. 2012, pp 53.
Hazem1, A.; Al-Charchafchi, F. and Ghazzawi, D. 2012. Biochemical, antibacterial and antifungal activity of extracts from Achillea fragrantissima and evaluation of volatile oil composition. Der Pharmacia Sinica, 3 (3), pp 349-356.
Mazandarani, M., Mirdeilami, S. Z. and Pessarakli, M. 2013. Essential oil composition and antibacterial activity of Achillea millefolium L. from different regions in North east of Iran, J. Med. Plants Res., 7(16), pp 1063-1069.
Mottaghi,M., Shanjani, P.S., Jafari, A.A., Mirza, M. and Bihamta. M. R. 2016. Eessential oil composition of Achillea filipendulina, A. arabica and A. eriophora Cultivated under Temperate Climate in Iran. Journal of Medicinal plants and by products, 2, pp 153-158.
Mustafa, E.H.; Abu Zarga, M. and Abdalla, S. 1992. Effects of cirsiliol, a flavone isolated from Achillea fragrantissima, on rat isolated ileum. General Pharmacology, 23, pp 555- 560.
Nemeth, E. (2010). Achillea species used medicinally in Hungary. Israel J. Plant Sci. 58, pp 279–289.
Saeidnia, S.; Gohari, A.R.; Mokhber-Dezfuli, N.; Kiuchi, F. 2011. A review on phytochemistry and medicinal properties of the genus Achillea. Daru 19, pp 173–186.
Sathiyamoorthy, P., Lugasi-Evgi, H., Van-Damme, P., Abu-Rabia, A., Gopas, J. and Golan-Goldhrish, A. 1997. Larvicidal activity in desert plants of the Negev and Bedouin market plant products. Pharm Biol., 35, pp 265– 273.
Sathiyamoorthy, P.; Lugasi-Evgi, H., Schlesinger, P., Kedar, J., Gopas J, Pollack, Y. and Golan-Goldhirsh, A. (1999). Screening for cytotoxic and antimalarial activities in desert plants of the Negev and Bedouin market plant products. Pharm Biol., 37, pp 188–195.
Shalaby, A.F and Richter, G. 1964. Chromatographic investigation of the essential oil of Achillea fragrantissima. J. Pharmaceut. Sci. 53, 1502.
Skotti, E.; Anastasaki, E.; Kanellou, G.; Polissiou, M. and Tarantilis, P. A. 2014. Total phenolic content, antioxidant activity and toxicity of aqueous extracts from selected Greek medicinal and aromatic plants. Ind. Crops Prod., 53, pp 46- 54.
Soltan, M.M. and Zaki, A.K. 2009. Antiviral screening of forty-two Egyptian medicinal plants. J. Ethnopharmacol., 126, pp102–107.
Toker, Z., Ozen, H.C., Clery, R.A., Owen, N.E. 2003. Essential oils of two Achillea species from Turkey. J. Essent. Oil Res. 15, pp100-110.
Toncer, O.; Basbag, S.; Karaman, S.; Diraz, E. and Basbag, M. (2010). Chemical composition of the essential oils of some Achillea species growing wild in Turkey. Int. J. Agric. Biol., 12, pp 527– 530.
Viljoen,A.; van Vuuren, S. ; Ernst, E. ; Klepser, M.; Demirci, B.; Başer, H.; van Wyk, E.(2003). J. Ethnopharmacol., 88, pp 137-143.
Vitalini, S.; Iriti, M.; Puricelli, C.; Ciuchi, D.; Segale, A. and Fico, G. 2013. Traditional knowledge on medicinal and food plants used in Val San Giacomo (Sondrio, Italy)-An alpine ethnobotanical study. J. Ethnopharmacol., 145, pp 517–529.
Yaniv, Z., Dafni A., and Friedman, J. 1987. J. Ethnopharmacol 19(2):145-151. Zeedan, G.S.; Abdalhamed, A.M.; Ottai, M.E.; Abdelshafy, S. and Abdeen, E. 2014. Antimicrobial, antiviral activity and GC-MS analysis of essential oil extracted from Achillea fragrantissima plant growing in Sinai Peninsula, Egypt. J. Microb. Biochem. Technol. S., 8, pp. 6
Copyright (c) 2018 Karzan O. Qader, Sahar A.A. Malik Al-Saadi, Ibrahim M. Faraj
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License [CC BY-NC-SA 4.0] that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).