Chemical Characterization and Antidiabetic Activity of Essential Oils from Pelargonium graveolens Leaves

Keywords: Pelargonium graveolens, Geranium, Geraniaceae, Diabetes, Gas chromatography–mass spectrometry, α-Glucosidase enzyme


Pelargonium graveolens (Geranium) is a source of the finest quality of fragrance and its essential oils are used as antibacterial, and antifungal agents. The aim of the current research is to determine chemical constituents in the essential oil of P. graveolens by GC-MS and evaluate its antidiabetic activity via α-glucosidase inhibition assay. The chemical composition of P. graveolens essential oil was determined by GC/MS and its antidiabetic activity was assessed through inhibition of α-glucosidase enzyme in in-vitro models. GC-MS analysis determines 36 chemical components in the essential oil of P. graveolens leaves, and citronellyl isovalerate (10.41 %), menthol (9.61 %), linalool (8.63 %), p-menthone (6.31 %), and geranyl tiglate (4.99 %) were recorded as major constituents. The essential oil of P. graveolens leaves showed concentration dependant inhibition of α-glucosidase enzyme ranging from 28.13±1.41 to 74.24±2.53 µg/mL for concentration ranging from 31.25 to 1000 µg/mL. The IC50 values for of P. graveolens and acarbose were found as 93.72±4.76 and 80.4±2.17 µg/mL, respectively against the α-glucosidase enzyme. The study finding explores the chemical components of P. graveolens growing in the Iraqi Kurdistan region and scientifically supported its possible use in diabetic patients for controlling postprandial hyperglycemia.


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Author Biographies

Javed Ahamad, Department of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Tishk International University, Kurdistan Region, Erbil, Iraq

Javed Ahamad is an Assistant Professor at the Department of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Tishk International University. He got the bachelor’s degree in pharmacy, the master and Ph.D. degree in Pharmacognosy & Phytochemistry. His research interests are in isolation, characterization of natural products. Dr. Javed Ahamad has authored two books and published 13 book chapters. He has published more than 60 research articles in peer-reviewed journals.

Subasini Uthirapathy, Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Tishk International University, Kurdistan Region, Erbil, Iraq

Subasini Uthirapathy is an Asst.istant Professor at the Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Tishk International University. She got the B.Pharm., and M.Pharm., a degree in Dr. M.G.R Medical University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India, and the Ph.D. degree in Pharmacology and Toxicology. Her research interests are cardiovascular disease, molecular pharmacology, and Toxicology in the animal models. Dr. Subasini Uthirapathy is a member of the Indian Biomedical Scientists.



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How to Cite
Javed Ahamad and Subasini Uthirapathy (2021) “Chemical Characterization and Antidiabetic Activity of Essential Oils from Pelargonium graveolens Leaves”, ARO-THE SCIENTIFIC JOURNAL OF KOYA UNIVERSITY, 9(1), pp. 109-113. doi: 10.14500/aro.10791.