Structural and Optical Properties of Cadmium Sulfide-doped Silver Deposited on Glass and Polymer Substrates by Chemical Spray Pyrolysis
This process of this paper is carried out using thechemical spraying method to produce homogeneous thin films ofpure cadmium sulfide-doped with silver at different percentagesof 1%, 3%, and 5% on glass and polyimide plastic substrates at300°C. The aim is to study the optical and structural properties of the samples and the effect of the silver doping rate on films producedwith these properties. Due to X-ray diffraction studies, all filmscreated had a hexagonal phase, and it was noticed that they had avery precise structure free of holes or cracks. The obtained crystalsize ranged between 22.74 nm and 55.05 nm for different substrates, and the prominent plane was (002). From the optical properties, all films exhibited transmission higher than 60%, thus showing a lowabsorption, which makes them be used as light-permeable layers in the Solar Cell system. In addition, emission peaks were revealed by photo luminescence spectra examination at wavelengths ranging between (542.94 nm) and (546.02 nm), which led to calculate the energy gap (Eg). of the produced films, ranged between (2.27 eV) and (2.28 eV) for the different substrates.
Aboud, A.A., Mukherjee, A., Revaprasadu, N., and Mohamed, A.N., 2019. The effect of Cu-doping on CdS thin films deposited by the spray pyrolysis technique. Journal of Materials Research and Technology, 8(2), pp.2021-2030.
Ahmed, A.A.A., Al-Hesni, N.M., Al-Osta, A.H., Al-Salmi, M.L., Manssor, K.A., Ja’adan, S.M., Al-Asbahi, B.A., Qaid, S.M.H., Ghaithan, H.M., and Farooq, W.A., 2021a. Influence of single and dual doping (Ag and Co) on the optical properties of CdS quantum dot thin films for solar application. Optik, 246, p.167824.
Ahmed, M.A., Ahmed, E.H., Sabri, M.M., and Abed, W.R., 2020. The performance of high-efficiency perovskite solar cell (PSC) by using capacitance simulator. Journal of Physics Conference Series, 1530, p.012149.
Ahmed, M.A., Sabri, M.F.M., and Abed, W.R., 2021b. The study of optical and electrical properties of nanostructured silicon carbide thin films grown by pulsed-laser deposition. Aro Scientific Journal of Koya University, 9(2), pp.46-50.
An, B.G., Kim, H.R., Chang, Y.W., Park, J.G., and Pyun, J.C., 2021. Photosensors-based on cadmium sulfide (CdS) nanostructures: A review. Journal of the Korean Ceramic Society, 58(6), pp.631-644.
Bora, J., Borthakur, A., Arandhara, G., and Saikia, P.J., 2021. Effect of Ag doping on the optical and structural properties of CdS/polyvinyl alcohol thin films by thermolysis process. Thin Solid Films, 734(2), p.138847.
Deshmukh, S.G., Kheraj, V., and Panchal, A.K., 2018. Preparation of nanocrystalline CdS thin film by successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) method. Materials Today Proceedings, 5(10), pp.21322-21327.
Faraj, M.G., Ibrahim, K., and Salhin Ali, A., 2012. Fabrication and characterization of thin-film Cu (In, Ga) Se2 solar cells on a PET plastic substrate using screen printing. Materials Science in Semiconductor Processing, 15(2), pp.165-173.
Faraj, M.G., Pakhuruddin, M.Z., and Taboada, P., 2017. Structural and optical properties of cadmium sulfide thin films on flexible polymer substrates by chemical spray pyrolysis technique. Journal of Materials Science Materials in Electronics, 28(9), pp.6628-6634.
Ikhmayies, S.J., 2020. Advances in Energy Materials. 1 sted., Springer International Publishing, United States of America.
Islam, M.A., Hossain, M.S., Aliyu, M.M., Chelvanathan, P., Huda, Q., Karim, M.R., Sopian, K., and Amin, N., 2013. Comparison of structural and optical properties of CdS thin films grown by CSVT, CBD and sputtering techniques. Energy Procedia, 33, pp.203-213.
Kakhaki, Z.M., Youzbashi, A.A., Sangpour, P., Naderi, N., and Orooji, Y., 2022. Influence of Cd salt concentration on the photoconductivity of CdS thin films prepared by chemical bath technique. Materials Science in Semiconductor Processing, 148, p.106773.
Mahmood, W., Ali, J., Thomas, A., Awan, S.U., Jackman, M., Haq, A.U., Hassan, M.U., and Shah, N.A., 2018. Role of Ag1+ substitutional defects on the electronic and optical properties of n-type CdS thin films semiconductor for sustainable and stable window layer in solar cells technology. Optical Materials, 85, pp.143-152.
Manthrammel, M.A., Shkir, M., Shafik, S., Anis, M., and Alfaify, S., 2020. A systematic investigation on physical properties of spray pyrolysis-fabricated CdS thin films for opto-nonlinear applications: An effect of Na doping. Journal of Materials Research, 35(4), pp.410-421.
Mensah, M.B., Awudza, J.A., Revaprasadu, N., and O’brien, P., 2021. Synthesis of CdS and PbS nanoparticles by the thermal decomposition of ethyl xanthate complexes in castor oil using the heat-up technique. Materials Science in Semiconductor Processing, 122, p.105493.
Mohammed, I.M.S., Gubari, G.M.M., Sonawane, M.E., Kasar, R.R., Patil, S.A., Mishra, M.K., Kutwade, V.V., and Sharma, R., 2021. Influence of pH on the physical properties of CdS thin film and its photosensor application. Applied Physics A, 127(8), p.597.
Nazir, A., Toma, A., Shah, N.A., Panaro, S., Butt, S., Sagar, R.R., Raja, W., Rasool, K., and Maqsood, A., 2014. Effect of Ag doping on opto-electrical properties of CdS thin films for solar cell applications. Journal of Alloys and Compounds, 609, pp.40-45.
Ojeda-Barrero, G., Oliva-Avilés, A., Oliva, A., Maldonado, R.D., Acosta, M., and Alonzo-Medina, G.M., 2018. Effect of the substrate temperature on the physical properties of sprayed-CdS films by using an automatized perfume atomizer. Materials Science in Semiconductor Processing, 79, pp. 7-13.
Rahman, M.F., Hossain, J., and Ismail, A.B., 2020. Structural, surface morphological and optical properties and their correlation with the thickness of spin coated superior quality CdS thin film synthesized using a novel chemical route. SN Applied Sciences, 2(12), p.1956.
Shaban, Z.M., Khlati, J.A., Khadayeir, A.A., Habubi, N.F., and Chiad, S.S., 2021. Structural, morphology and optical properties of Ag-doped nanostructured CdS thin films. Journal of Physics Conference Series, 1999(1), p.012063.
Shkir, M., Ashraf, I.M., Alfaify, S., El-Toni, A.M., Ahmed, M., and Khan A., 2020a. A noticeable effect of Pr doping on key optoelectrical properties of CdS thin films prepared using spray pyrolysis technique for high-performance photodetector applications.Ceramics International, 46(4), pp.4652-4663.
Shkir, M., Ashraf, I.M., Chandekar, K.V., Yahia, I.S, Khan, A., Algarni, H., and Alfaify, S., 2020b. A significant enhancement in visible-light photodetection properties of chemical spray pyrolysis fabricated CdS thin films by novel Eu doping concentrations. Sensors and Actuators A Physical, 301, p.111749.
Shkir, M., Ashraf, I.M., Khan, A., Khan, M.T., El-Toni, A.M., Alfaify, S., 2020c. A facile spray pyrolysis fabrication of Sm: CdS thin films for high-performance photodetector applications. Sensors and Actuators A Physical, 306, p.111952.
Shkir, M., Khan, Z.R., Anis, M., Shaikh, S.S., and Alfaify, S., 2020d. A comprehensive study of opto-electrical and nonlinear properties of Cu@ CdS thin films for optoelectronics. Chinese Journal of Physics, 63, pp.51-62.
Taghizadeh Chari, F., and Fadavieslam, M.R., 2019. Microstructural, optical and electrical properties of CdS thin films grown by spray pyrolysis technique as a function of substrate temperature. Optical and Quantum Electronics, 51(2), pp.1-16.
Valencia, D.E.J., and Baena, O.J.R., 2015. Portland cement clinker formation: High temperature equilibria and phase composition prediction. In: TMS 2015 144th Annual Meeting and Exhibition. Springer, Germany. pp.879-886.
Vishwas, M., Shamala, K.S., and Gandla, S., 2022. Comparison of optical properties of CdS thin films synthesized by spray pyrolysis and thermal evaporation method. Journal of Optics, 51(1), pp.1-5.
Wada, H., 2022. Preparation of functional nanoparticles by laser process in liquid and their optical applications. In: High-energy Chemistry and Processing in Liquids. Springer, Germany. pp.237-259.
Yadav, A.A., Barote, M.A., and Masumdar, E.U., 2010. Studies on nanocrystalline cadmium sulphide (CdS) thin films deposited by spray pyrolysis. Solid State Sciences, 12(7), pp.1173-1177.
Yang, F., Tian, X., Zhang, K., Zhang, X., and Liu, L., 2018. The morphology-property effect and synergetic catalytic effect of cds as electrocatalysts for dyesensitized solar cells. ECS Journal of Solid State Science and Technology, 7, pp.311-316.
Copyright (c) 2023 Niaz H. Hamad, Mohammad G. Faraj, Akram H. taha
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
Authors who choose to publish their work with Aro agree to the following terms:
Authors retain the copyright to their work and grant the journal the right of first publication. The work is simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License [CC BY-NC-SA 4.0]. This license allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
Authors have the freedom to enter into separate agreements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work. This includes options such as posting it to an institutional repository or publishing it in a book, as long as proper acknowledgement is given to its initial publication in this journal.
Authors are encouraged to share and post their work online, including in institutional repositories or on their personal websites, both prior to and during the submission process. This practice can lead to productive exchanges and increase the visibility and citation of the published work.
By agreeing to these terms, authors acknowledge the importance of open access and the benefits it brings to the scholarly community.