Assessment of Some Clay Deposits from Fatha Formation (M. Miocene) for Brick Manufacturing in Koya Area, NE Iraq
AbstractThis paper deals with the evaluation of physical, chemical and mineralogical properties of claystone sediments of Miocene age (Fatha Formation) and their suitability to use them as raw materials in manufacturing of building clay brick in Kurdistan (Koya city). The study based on the field reconnaissance for three sites of claystones which were selected from three different locations within Fatha Formation in Koya city, includes Haibat-Sultan area, Koya-Sulaimania road and central of Koya city. The clay samples were subjected to particle size distribution, chemical composition, mineralogical analysis, plasticity index and XRD tests. Clay tiles were produced by using Semi-dry method under load 78 kN/mm² and fired at 950 C°. The produced clay tiles were subjected to water absorption, efflorescence, shrinkage and compressive strength tests. The research has shown that the plasticity index depends on the mineral composition of the raw materials. The grain size analysis of raw materials, physical properties and mechanical properties of the produced tiles has shown the suitability of the used raw materials in producing class bricks of class A (first class) according to the requirements of specification of the Iraqi Standard (1993).
Al Jaboury, A. I. and McCann, T., 2008. The Middle Miocene Fatha Formation. Geo Arabia (Manama), 13(3), pp.141-174.
Al-Bassam, K.S., 2004. Assessment of physical and chemical properties for raw material used in bricks manufacture. Baghdad: Publication of GEOSURV.
Al-hakim, F.A., 1998. Assessment of some clay from Neogene for ceramic purposes-N Iraq. M. Sc. Thesis, University of Baghdad.
Allen, E. and Lano, J., 2009. Fundamentals of building and construction: Materials & Methods. 5th ed. Hoboken: John Willey & Sons.
Basir Remote Sensing Insitute, 2013. Satellite GeoEye-1, 1:1000000. Available at <http://www.satimagingcorp.com/satellite-sensors/geoeye-1/> [Accessed 13 February 2013].
Bill, F. , Dondi, M., Fabbri, B. and Morandi, N., 1992. Carbonate clays for the production of porous ceramic tiles by fast single firing. Geological Carpathica International Clay Journal, 1(2), pp.91-95.
Brady, J.B., Newton, R.M. and Boardman, S.J., 1995. New Uses for Powder X-ray Diffraction Experiments in the Undergraduate Curriculum. Journal of Geological Education, 43(5), pp.466-470.
British Standards Institution, 1985. BS 3921: 1985 British Standard specification for clay bricks. London: BSI.
Buday, T., 1980. The Regional geology of Iraq, vol. 1: stratigraphy and paleontology. Baghdad: Publication of GEOSURV.
Buday, T. and Jassim, S., 1987. The Regional geology of Iraq, vol. 2: Tectonism, Magmatism and Metamorphism. Baghdad: Publication of GEOSURV.
Casagrande, A., 1932. Research on the atterberg limits of soils. Public Roads, 13(8), pp.121-136.
Folk, R., 1974. Petrology of sedimentary industrial rocks and minerals. Texas: Hemphill Publ. Co.
Iraqi Standards, 1993. IS No.25: 1993 Clay building bricks. Baghdad, IS.
Klein, C., 2002. The manual of mineral science, 22nd ed. New York: John Wiley & Sons.
Lateef, A., 1976. Regional geological mapping of Hamrin range. Baghdad: Publication of GEOSURV.
Maala, K., Jabo, B., Al-Saad, N., Lafta, A. and Fayath, K., 2001. Assessment of quality and quantity of stratified clay soil for manufacture of clay brick in South of Mosul. Baghdad: Publication of GEOSURV.
Maala, K., Sood, Q., Khames, D., Jabo, B., Al-Saade, N. and Khadhum, M., 2007. Laboratory assessment for utilization of Neogene mudstones in manufacturing of building bricks. Iraqi Bulletin of Geology and Mining, 3(2), pp.1-15.
Merza, T.A. and Mohyaadldin, M., 2005. Manufacture of brick tiles from local raw materials, N & NE Iraq. Zankoy Sulaimani Journal, 8(1/A), pp.31-45.
Merza, T.A., 1997. Assessment of some clay from U. Cretaceous and Tertiary for ceramic purposes-NE Iraq. M. Sc., University of Baghdad.
Merza, T.A., 2002. Assessment of some clay from Gercus Formation, M. Eocene, for brick manufacture, Sulaimani area, NE Iraq. Zankoy Sulaimani Journal, 5(1), pp.57-67.
Merza, T.A., 2004. The possibility of production of glazed ceramic tiles from the recent deposits, Sulaimani region, NE Iraq. KAJ Journal, 3(1), pp.23-32.
Moulluid, Y., 2000. Sub-baked stabilized soil blocks for building. M. Sc., University of Sallahadeen.
Omer, H., 2009. Primary geotechnical assessment of Haibat -Sultan area and its suitability for proposed tunnel construction, M. Sc., Koya University.
Punmia, B., 1993. Building construction, 5th ed. New Delhi: Laxami Publications (P) Ltd.
Punmia, B., Jain K. and Jain Kr., 2003. Basic civil engineering. New Delhi: Laxami Publications.
Standards American Society for Testing and Materials, 1996. D4318: 1996 Standard test method for liquid limits, plasticity index of soils. America: ASTM.
Youkhana, R. and Sissakian,V., 1986. Stratigraphy of Shaqlawa-Koisanjaq area. Journal of the Geological Society of Iraq, 19(3), pp.137-154.
Copyright (c) 2016 Nawzat R. Ismail, Hemn M. Omar
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License [CC BY-NC-SA 4.0] that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).