Anticipated Impact of In-Car Mobile Calls on the Electromagnetic Interaction of Handset Antenna and Human
AbstractThis paper investigates the impact of the in-car mobile call on the electromagnetic interaction of the mobile handset antenna and user’s head. This impact was evaluated from two different perspectives; First, the antenna performance, e.g., total isotropic sensitivity and total efficiency, and second, the specific absorption rate (SAR) induced in the user's head. A Yee-FDTD based electromagnetic solver was used to simulate a mobile phone in hand close proximity to head at cheek and tilt positions, and working at a frequency of 1900 MHz (GSM 1900/PCS) while making a call inside a car. A Specific Anthropomorphic Mannequin (SAM) was used to simulate the user’s head, a generic phone was used to simulate the mobile phone, a semi-realistic model with three tissues, i.e., skin, bone and muscle, was used to simulate the user’s hand, and a CAD model of Ferrari F430-brand was used to simulate the car. The results showed a considerable degradation in the mobile phone antenna performance while making a mobile phone call inside a car that may drive the mobile phone increases its radiated power to establish a successful connection with the base-station antenna, and consequently increases the induced specific absorption rate in the user’s head.
Abousetta, M.M., Alhamdani, Z.K., Al-Mously, S.I., Al-Daghistani, M.E. and Omran, K.F., 1999. Electromagnetic hazard mitigation in mobile telephones. In: IEE, Seminar on electromagnetic assessment and antenna design relating to health implications of mobile phones (Ref. No. 1999/043), June 1999. London, UK.
Al-Mously, S.I., 2011a. Factors influencing the EM interaction between mobile phone antennas and human head. Digital Information and Communication Technology and its Applications Communications in Computer and Information Science, 166, pp.106-120.
Al-Mously, S.I, 2011b. Assessment procedure of the EM Interaction between mobile phone antennae and human body. International Journal on New Computer Architectures and Their Applications (IJNCAA), 1(1), pp.1-14.
Al-Mously, S.I., 2012a. Mobile phone EMC deterioration due to different realistic usage patterns. In: PIER, Progress in electromagnetics research symposium, August 2012. Moscow, Russia.
Al-Mously, S.I, 2012b. Cellular handset antennas design, performance enhancement, and assessment of their EM interaction with a human, 1st ed. LAP Lambert Academic Publishing, ISBN: 978-3-8473-0403-6
Al-Mously, S.I. and Abdalla, A.Z., 2009. Hand implications on the coupling between human head and different cellular phones. In: TELSIKS, 9th International conference on telecommunication in modern satellite, cable, and broadcasting services, 7-9 Oct. 2009. Serbia, Belgrade.
Al-Mously, S.I. and Abousetta, M.M., 2008a. A novel cellular handset design for an enhanced antenna performance and a reduced SAR in the human head, International Journal of Antennas and Propagation, 10 pages. doi:10.1155/2008/642572
Al-Mously, S.I. and Abousetta, M.M., 2008b. Anticipated impact of hand-hold position on the electromagnetic interaction of different antenna types/positions and a Human in cellular communications, International Journal of Antennas and Propagation, 22 pages. doi:10.1155/2008/102759
Al-Mously, S.I. and Abousetta, M.M., 2008c. A Study of the Hand-Hold Impact on the EM Interaction of a Cellular Handset and a Human, International Journal of Electronics, Circuits and Systems , 2(2), pp.91-95.
Al-Mously, S.I. and Abousetta, M.M., 2008d. Study of both antenna and PCB positions effect on the coupling between the cellular hand-set and human head at GSM-900 standard. In: iWAT2008, The international workshop on antenna technology, 4-6 March 2008. Chiba University, Japan.
Al-Mously, S.I. and Abousetta, M.M., 2009a. User’s Hand Effect on TIS of Different GSM900/1800 Mobile Phone Models Using FDTD Method, World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology, 3(1), pp.830-835.
Al-Mously, S.I. and Abousetta, M.M., 2009b. Cell Phones: The EM coupling with human body, 1st ed. VDM Publishing House Ltd., ISBN: 978-3-639-21871-8.
Anzaldi, G., Silva, F., Fernandez, M. and Quilez, M., Riu, P.J., 2007. Initial analysis of SAR from a cell phone inside a vehicle by numerical computation. IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering, 54(5), pp.921-930.
Balanis, A., 1997. Antenna theory: Analysis and design, John Wiley and Sons.
Beard, B., Kainz, W., Onishi, T., Iyama, T., Watanabe, S., Fujiwara, O., Wang, J., Bit-Babik, G. Faraone, A., Wiart, J., Christ, A., Kuster, N., Lee, A., Kroeze, H., Siegbahn, M., Keshvari, J., Abrishamkar, H., Simon, W., Manteuffel, D. and Nikoloski, N., 2006. Comparisons of computed mobile phone induced SAR in the SAM phantom to that in anatomically correct models of the human head, IEEE Transaction on Electromagnetic Compatibility, 48(2), pp.397–407.
Chavannes, N., Futter, P., Tay, R., Pokovic, K. and Kuster, N., 2006. Reliable prediction of mobile phone performance for different daily usage patterns using the FDTD method. In: IEEE, The international workshop on antenna technology (IWAT 2006). White Plains, NY, USA.
Chen, Z.N., 2007. Antennas for portable devices, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichaster.
Diao, Y., Sun, W.N., Hung Chan, K.H., Leung, S.W. and Siu, Y.M., 2013. SAR evaluation for multiple wireless communication devices inside a vehicle. In: URSI, The international symposium on electromagnetic theory (EMTS), 20-24 May 2013. Hiroshima, Japan.
Dimbylow, P.J. and Gandhi, O.P., 1991. Finite-difference time-domain calculations of SAR in a realistic heterogeneous model of the head for plane-wave exposure from 600MHz to 3GHz, Physics in Medicine and Biology, (6), pp.1075-1089.
Dimbylow, P.J., and Mann, S.M., 1994. SAR calculations in an anatomically realistic model of the head for mobile communication transceivers at 900 MHz and 1.8 GHz, Phys. Med. Biol., (39), pp.1537–1553.
Ferrari, 2014. Overview; Ferrari Spider F430. [online] Available at: <http://auto.ferrari.com/en_EN/sports-cars-models/past-models/f430-spider/> [Accessed 25 June 2014].
Francavilla, M., Schiavoni, A., Bertotto, P., Richiardi, G., 2001. Effect of the hand on cellular phone radiation, IEE Proceeding of Microwaves, Antennas and Propagation, 148, pp.247–253.
Futter, P., Chavannes, N., Tay, R., et al., 2008. Reliable prediction of mobile phone performance for realistic in-use conditions using the FDTD method, IEEE Antennas and Propagation Magazine, 50(1), pp. 87–96.
Gandhi, O.P., Lazzi, G. and Furse, C.M., 1996. Electromagnetic absorption in the human head and neck for mobile telephones at 835 and 1900 MHz. IEEE Transaction on Microwave Theory and Techniques, 44(10), pp.1884,1897.
IEC Standard, 2005, 62209-1 Human exposure to radio frequency fields from hand-held and body-mounted wireless communication devices—human models, instrumentation, and procedures—part 1: Procedure to determine the specific absorption rate (SAR) for hand-held devices used in close proximity to the ear (frequency range of 300 MHz to 3 GHz).
IEEE Standard, 2003. 1528–2003 Recommended practice for determining the peak spatial-average specific absorption rate (SAR) in the human head from wireless communications devices: measurement techniques.
IEEE Standard, 1529 Recommended practice for determining the peak spatial-average specific absorption rate (SAR) associated with the use of wireless handsets—computational techniques,” draft standard.
Jensen, M.A. and Rahmat-Samii, Y., 1995. EM interaction of handset antennas and a human in personal communications. Proceeding of the IEEE, 83(1), pp.7–17.
Kouveliotis, N.K., Panagiotou, S.C., Varlamos, P.K. and Capsalis, C.N., 2006. Theoretical Approach of the Interaction Between a Human Head Model and a Mobile Handset Helical Antenna Using Numerical Methods, Progress In Electromagnetics Research, PIER 65, pp.309–327.
Lindberg, P., 2007. Wideband active and passive antenna solutions for handheld terminals, Ph. D. Uppsala University.
Pedersen, G.F., 2012. Limit values for downlink mobile telephony in Denmark. Aalborg University. [pdf] Aalborg University. http://vbn.aau.dk/files/75767053/Limit_values_for_Downlink_Mobile_Telephony_in_Denmark.pdf [Accessed 20 May 2014].
Poole, I., 2004. Radio-Electronics.com; resources and analysis of electronics engineers. [online] Available at: <http://www.radio-electronics.com/info/ cellulartelecomms/gsm_technical/power-control-classes-amplifier.php> [Accessed 20 May 2014].
Ruddle, AR., 2007. Computed SAR distributions for the occupants of a car with a 400 MHz transmitter on the rear seat. In: EMCZUR, 18th International Zurich symposium on electromagnetic compatibility, September 2007. Munich, Germany.
Ruddle, AR., 2009. Computed SAR levels in vehicle occupants due to on-board transmissions at 900 MHz. In: Antennas & propagation conference, 16-17 November 2009. Loughborough, UK.
SEMCAD-X, 2009. Version 14.0 Altesch. Reference Manual, Simulation Platform for Electromagnetic Compatibility, Antenna Design and Dosimetry, SPEAG - Schmid & Partner Engineering AG: <http://www.semcad.com>.
Toftgard, J., Hornsleth, S.N. and Andersen, J.B., 1993. Effects on portable antennas of the presence of a person, IEEE Transaction on Antennas and Propagation, 41(6), pp.739–746.
Wang, J. and Fujiwara, O., 2003, Comparison and evaluation of electromagnetic absorption characteristics in realistic human head models of adult and children for 900-MHz mobile telephones. IEEE Transaction on Microwave Theory and Techniques, 51(3), pp.966-971.
Watanabe, S.-I., Taki, M., Nojima, T. and Fujiwara, O., 1996. Characteristics of the SAR distributions in a head exposed to electromagnetic field radiated by a hand-held portable radio. IEEE Transaction on Microwave Theory and Techniques, 44(10), pp.1874–1883.
Yee, K.S., 1966. Numerical Solution of Initial Boundary Value Problems Involving Maxwell’s Equations in Isotropic Media. IEEE Transaction on Antennas and Propagation, 14(3), pp.302-307.
Copyright (c) 2016 Salah I. Yahya
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License [CC BY-NC-SA 4.0] that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).