# Static Analysis of Steel Fiber Concrete Beam With Heterosis Finite Elements

### Abstract

Steel fiber is considered as the most commonly used constructional fibers in concrete structures. The formulation of new nonlinearities to predict the static performance of steel fiber concrete composite structures is considered essential. Present study is devoted to investigate the efficiency of utilizing heterosis finite elements analysis in static analysis of steel fibrous beams. New and simple material nonlinearities are proposed and used in the formulation of these elements. A computer program coded in FORTRAN was developed to perform current finite element static analysis with considering four cases of elements stiffness matrix determination. The results are compared with the experimental data available in literature in terms of central deflections, strains, and failure form, good agreement was found. Suitable outcomes have been observed in present static analysis with using of tangential stiffness matrix and stiffness matrix in second iteration of the load increment.### Downloads

### References

Abdul-Razzak, A.A. and Ali, A.A.M., 2011. Modeling and numerical simulation of high strength fiber reinforced concrete corbels. Applied Mathematical Modeling, 35(6), pp.2901-2915.

Abdul-Razzak, A.A. and Ali, A.A.M., 2011. Influence of cracked concrete models on the nonlinear analysis of high strength steel fiber reinforced concrete corbels. Composite Structures, 93(9), pp.2277-2287.

Alavizadeh-Farhang, A., 1998. Plain and steel fiber reinforced concrete beams subjected to combined mechanical and thermal loadings. M.Sc. Thesis, Department of Structural Engineering, Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.

Al-Ta’an, S.A. and Ezzadeen, N.A., 1995. Flexural analysis of reinforced fibrous concrete members using finite element method. Computer and Structures, 56(6), pp.1065-1072.

ANSYS, 2003. Swanson Analysis System. US.

Ashour, S.A., Wafa, F.F. and Kamal, M.I., 2000. Effect of the concrete compressive strength and tensile reinforcement ratio on the flexural behavior of fibrous concrete beams. Engineering Structures, 22(9), pp.1133–1146.

Bangash, M.Y.H., 1989. Concrete and concrete applications. London, England: Elsevier Science Publishers Ltd.

Bayramov, F., Tasdemir, C. and Tasdemir, M.A., 2004. Optimization of steel fiber reinforced concretes by means of statistical response surface method. Cement and Concrete Composites, 26(6), pp.665–675.

Bencardino, F., Rizzuti, L., Spadea, G. and Swamy, R.N., 2010. Experimental evaluation of fiber reinforced concrete fracture properties. Composites Part B-Engineering, 41(1), pp.17–24.

Compione, G. and Mangiavillano, M. L., 2008. Fibrous reinforced concrete beams in flexure: Experimental investigation, analytical modeling and design considerations. Engineering Structures, 30(11), pp.2970-2980.

Cucchiara, C., La Mendola, L. and Papia, M., 2004. Effectiveness of stirrups and steel fibers as shear reinforcement. Cement and Concrete Composites, 26(7), pp.777-786.

Dupont, D., and Vandewalle, L., 2002. Bending capacity of steel fiber reinforced concrete SFRC beams. In: International Congress on Challenges of Concrete Construction. Dundee, pp.81-90.

Ganesan, N., and Shivananda, K.P., 2002. Spacing and width of cracks in polymer modified steel fiber reinforced concrete flexural members. In: International Congress on Challenges of Concrete Construction, Dundee, pp.244-253.

Gopalaratnam, U.S., Shah, S.P., Batson, G.B., Criswell, M.E., Ramaksishran, U., and Wecharatara, M., 1991. Fracture toughness of fiber reinforced concrete. ACI Materials Journal, 8(4), pp.339-353.

Hartman, T., 1999. Steel fiber reinforced concrete. M.Sc. Thesis, Department of Structural Engineering, Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.

Hasan, N.H.J., 2002. Nonlinear finite element analysis of fibrous reinforced concrete slabs. M.Sc. Thesis, University of Mosul.

Hemmaty, Y., 1998. Modeling of the shear force transferred between cracks in reinforced concrete structures. In: Proceedings of ANSYS Conference, Vol. 1, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.

Hsu, L.S. and Hsu, C.T.T., 1994. Stress–strain behavior of steel-fiber high-strength concrete under compression. ACI Structural Journal, 91(4), pp.448-457.

Huyse, L., Hemmaty, Y. and Vandewalle, L., 1994. Finite element modeling of fiber reinforced concrete beams. In: Proceedings of the ANSYS Conference, Vol. 2, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.

Koksal, F., Altun, F., Yigit, I. and Sahin, Y., 2008. Combined effect of silica fume and steel fiber on the mechanical properties of high strength concretes. Construction and Building Materials, 22(8), pp.1874–1880.

Kurihara, N., Kunieda, M., Kamada, T., Uchida, Y. and Rokugo, K., 2000. Tension softening diagrams and evaluation of properties of steel fiber reinforced concrete. Engineering Fracture Mechanics, 65(2-3), 235-245.

Lim, D.H. and Nawy, E.G., 2005. Behavior of plain and steel-fiber-reinforced high-strength concrete under uniaxial and biaxial compression. Magazine of Concrete Research, 57(10), pp.603-610.

Lin, W.T., Huang, R., Lee, C.L. and Hsu, H.M., 2008. Effect of steel fiber on the mechanical properties of cement-based composites containing silica fume. Journal of Materials Science and Technology, 6(3), pp.214–221.

Narayanan, R. and Darwish, I.Y.S., 1987. Use of steel fibers as shear reinforcement. ACI Structural Journal, 84(3), pp.216-227.

Ocean Heidelberg Cement Group, 1999. Ocean concrete products, steel fiber reinforcement, working together to build our communities report.

Paine, K.A., Elliott, K.S. and Paston, C.H., 2002. Flexural toughness as a measure of shear strength and ductility of prestressed fiber reinforced concrete beams. In: International Congress on Challenges of Concrete Construction, Dundee, pp.200-212.

Song, P.S. and Hwang, S., 2004. Mechanical properties of high-strength steel fiber reinforced concrete. Construction and Building Materials, 18(9), pp.669-673.

Swamy, R.N. and AL-Ta’an, S.A., 1981. Deformation and ultimate strength in flexure of reinforced concrete beams made with steel fiber concrete. ACI Journal Proceedings. 78(5), pp.395-405.

Thomas, J. and Ramaswamy, A., 2007. Mechanical properties of steel fiber-reinforced concrete. ASCE Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering, 19(5), pp.385-392.

*ARO-THE SCIENTIFIC JOURNAL OF KOYA UNIVERSITY*, 2(1), pp. 24-33. doi: 10.14500/aro.10041.

Copyright (c) 2016 James H. Haido

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:

- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License [CC BY-NC-SA 4.0] that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).