Wound Healing Properties and Structural Analysis of Four Geographical Areas’ Natural Clays

Keywords: Natural clay, rats, wound healing, X-ray diffraction, X-ray fluorescence


Clays are fine particle materials that harden after drying. The difference in their structure is the key to their efficacy and their subsequent application. The current study aims to evaluate the wound healing property of four countries (C1:Iraq, C2:Turkey, C3:Azerbaijan and C4:Russia) clay samples by excision model using Sprague dawley rats also the chemical analysis of the samples was performed using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray Fluorescence (XRF) methods. Results revealed that the best wound healing activities were given by C1, C3, C4 and C2 respectively with healing percentages (76%, 71%, 62%, and 60%), respectively. XRD results revealed the presence of Calcium carbonate and CalciumMagnesium carbonate in C1, Dolomite and Calcium-Magnesium carbonate in C2, Cobalt Tantalum Sulfide in C3, Finally Quartz and Silicon Oxide in C4. On the other hand, XRF analysis showed the appearance of different major and trace elements with different quantities in each clay type. We conclude that different countries clays enclose wound healing property with diverse ranges and this diversity is due to their chemical and mineral structures.


Download data is not yet available.

Author Biography

Zahra A. Amin, Department of Pharmacognosy, College of Pharmacy, Hawler Medical University Erbil, Erbil 44001, Iraq

Zahra A. Amin is an Assistant Prof. at the Department of Pharmacognosy, College of Pharmacy, Hawler Medical University. She got the B.Sc. degree in Microbiology, the M.Sc. degree in Genetics and the Ph.D. degree in Immunology. Her research interests are in Molecular Medicine, Experimental animals and Biological activities of plants and chemical compounds. 


Arab, S. and Alshikh, A., 2012. The use of clay minerals of the dead sea as drugs. Clay Minerals, 5, pp.112-115.

Carretero, M.I., 2002. Clay minerals and their beneficial effects upon human health. A review. Applied Clay Science, 21, pp.155-163.

Ferrell, R., 2008. Medicinal clay and spiritual healing. Clays and Clay Minerals, 56, pp.751-760.

García-Villén, F., Souza, I., De Melo Barbosa, R., Borrego-Sánchez, A., Sánchez-Espejo, R., Ojeda-Riascos, S. and Iborra, C.V., 2020. Natural inorganic ingredients in wound healing. Current Pharmaceutical Design, 26, pp.621-641.

Gaskell, E.E. and Hamilton, A.R., 2014. Antimicrobial clay-based materials for wound care. Future Medicinal Chemistry, 6, pp.641-655.

Ghadiri, M., Chrzanowski, W., Lee, W. and Rohanizadeh, R., 2014a. Layered silicate clay functionalized with amino acids: Wound healing application. RSC Advances, 4, pp.35332-35343.

Ghadiri, M., Chrzanowski, W. and Rohanizadeh, R., 2014b. Antibiotic eluting clay mineral (Laponite®) for wound healing application: An in vitro study. Journal of Materials Science: Materials in Medicine, 25, pp.2513-2526.

Ghadiri, M., Chrzanowski, W. and Rohanizadeh, R., 2014c. Antibiotic eluting clay mineral (Laponite®) for wound healing application: An in vitro study. Journal of Materials Science: Materials in Medicine, 25, pp.2513-2526.

Incledion, A., Boseley, M., Moses, R., Moseley, R., Hill, K., Thomas, D., Adams, R., Jones, T. and Bérubé, K., 2021. A new look at the purported health benefits of commercial and natural clays. Biomolecules, 11, p.58.

Maniatis, Y., Simopoulos, A., Kostikas, A. and Perdikatsis, V., 1983. Effect of reducing atmosphere on minerals and iron oxides developed in fired clays: The role of Ca. Journal of the American Ceramic Society, 66, pp.773-781.

Marinelli, L., Cacciatore, I., Eusepi, P., Dimmito, M.P., Di Rienzo, A., Reale, M., Costantini, E., Borrego-Sánchez, A., García-Villén, F. and Viseras, C., 2021. In vitro wound-healing properties of water-soluble terpenoids loaded on halloysite clay. Pharmaceutics, 13, p.1117.

Morrison, K.D., Underwood, J.C., Metge, D.W., Eberl, D.D. and Williams, L.B., 2014. Mineralogical variables that control the antibacterial effectiveness of a natural clay deposit. Environmental Geochemistry and Health, 36, pp.613-631.

Qureshi, M., Khatoon, F. and Ahmed, S., 2015. An overview on wounds, their issue s and natural remedies for wound healing. Biochemistry and Physiology, 4, p.165.

Sandri, G., Bonferoni, M., Rossi, S., Ferrari, F., Aguzzi, C., Viseras, C. and Caramella, C., 2016. Clay minerals for tissue regeneration, repair, and engineering. In: Wound Healing Biomaterials. Elsevier, Amsterdam, Netherlands.

Slamova, R., Trckova, M., Vondruskova, H., Zraly, Z. and Pavlik, I., 2011. Clay minerals in animal nutrition. Applied Clay Science, 51, pp.395-398.

Tang, Q., Shen, S., Liang, J., Liang, G., Ou, X., Wang, L. and Ding, Y., 2005. Pharmacological effects and pharmaceutical application of clay minerals. Journal-Chinese Ceramic Society, 33, p.1036.

Tottoli, E., Dorati, R., Genta, I., Chiesa, E., Pisani, S. and Conti, B., 2020. Skin wound healing process and new emerging technologies for skin wound care and regeneration. Pharmaceutics, 12, p.735.

Viseras, C., Carazo, E., Borrego Sánchez, A., García-Villén, F., Sánchez Espejo, R., Cerezo, P. and Aguzzi, C., 2019. Clay Minerals in Skin Drug Delivery. Springer, Berlin, Germany. Williams, L., 2019. Natural antibacterial clays: Historical uses and modern advances. Clays and Clay Minerals, 67, pp.7-24.

Williams, L.B. and Haydel, S.E., 2010. Evaluation of the medicinal use of clay minerals as antibacterial agents. International Geology Review, 52, pp.745-770.

Williams, L.B., Haydel, S.E., Giese, R.F. Jr. and Eberl, D.D., 2008. Chemical and mineralogical characteristics of French green clays used for healing. Clays and Clay Minerals, 56, pp.437.

Wilson, M.J., 1994. Clay Mineralogy: Spectroscopic and Chemical Determinative Methods. Chapman and Hall, London.

How to Cite
Amin, Z. A. (2022) “Wound Healing Properties and Structural Analysis of Four Geographical Areas’ Natural Clays”, ARO-THE SCIENTIFIC JOURNAL OF KOYA UNIVERSITY, 10(1), pp. 1-5. doi: 10.14500/aro.10889.