Factors Controlling the Development of Straight Valleys and Streams in the Kurdistan Region, North and Northeast of Iraq
The Iraqi Kurdistan Region is a mountainous area with relief difference ranging from few hundred meters up to 3000 m, and locally more. Almost all of the mountains form anticlines that have NW–SE trend changing westwards of longitude to E–W. The carapace of the majority of the mountains is built up of Cretaceous rocks; however, some of them are of older rocks. Many of those anticlines are crossed by straight valleys and/or are crossed by streams and rivers which form again straight lines and almost coincide with regional lineaments, usually in N–S or NE–SW trend. The studied straight valleys are controlled, most probably by tectonic factors, therefore, exhibit special topographic forms, like straight lineaments crossing many successive anticlines, and also clear bending in some of the ridges in their crossing points to the valleys and/or streams. This paper aims to determine and discuss the factors that control the development of the straight valleys and/or lineaments. To achieve this aim, remote sensing and GIS techniques were followed, using Landsat, QuickBird images as well as geological maps of different scales, and different published articles.
Abdulnaby, W., Mahdi, H., Al-Shukri, H. and Numan, NS., 2014. Stress patterns in northern Iraq and surrounding regions from formal stress inversion of earthquake focal mechanism solutions. Pure and Applied Geophysics, 171, pp.2137-2153.
Al-Jaf, A.A. and Kadhim, T.H., 2010. The Geomorphological Map of Kirkuk Quadrangle, Sheet No. N1-38-2, Scale 1:250000. International Rep. No. 3297. Iraq Geological Survey, Baghdad-Iraq.
Al-Kadhimi, J.A.M., Sissakian, V.K., Fattah, A.S. and Deikran, D.B., 1997. Tectonic Map of Iraq, 2nd ed., Scale 1: 1000 000. GEOSURV, Baghdad, Iraq.
Al-Ma’amar, A.F., Al-Saady, Y.I. and Al-Saati, R.M., 2011. Series of Geomorphological Maps of Iraq, Scale 1: 250000, Erbil and Mahabad Quadrangles, Sheets No. NJ-38-14 and NJ-38-15. Iraq Geological Survey Library Internal Report No. 3358. GEOSURV, Baghdad.
Al-Mousawi, H.A., Sissakian, V.K. and Fouad, S.F., 2008. The Geology of Zakho Quadrangle, Scale 1:250000. Iraq Geological Survey, Baghdad, Iraq.
Aqrawi, A.A.M., Goff, J.C., Horbury, A.D. and Sadooni, F.N., 2010. The Petroleum Geology of Iraq. Scientific Press Ltd., United Kingdom, p.424.
Barwary, A.M. and Slewa, N.A., 2014. Geological Map of Khanaqin Quadrangle, Scale 1: 250000. Geosurv Systems Ltd., Baghdad, Iraq.
Buday, T. and Jassim, S.Z., 1987. The Geology of Iraq, Tectonism, Volcanism and Magmatism. Part II. Iraq Geological Survey, Baghdad, Iraq.
Buday, T., 1980. The Regional Geology of Iraq. Stratigraphy and Paleogeography. Vol.1. Iraq Geological Survey, Baghdad, Iraq, p.445.
Ditmar, V.J., Begisher, F.A., Afansiey, J.T., Belousova, B.A., Petchernikov, V.V., Cheremnyh, E.M., Shamakov, E.I., Koverzner, V.Y. and Nazarov, N.P., 1971. Geological Conditions and Hydrocarbon Prospect of the Republic of Iraq. Northern and Central Parts, Baghdad, Iraq.
Fouad, S.F., 2007. The Geology of Kani Rash Quadrangle, Scale 1:250000. Iraq Geological Survey, Baghdad, Iraq.
Fouad, S.F., 2010. Tectonic Map of Iraq. Scale 1:1,000,000, 3rd, ed. GEOSURV: Baghdad, Iraq.
Fouad, S.F., 2012. Tectonic Map of Iraq, Scale 1:1000 000, 3rd ed. Iraq Geological Survey, Baghdad, Iraq.
Huggett, R., 2007. Fundamentals of Geomorphology, Routledge Fundamentals of Physical Geography. Taylor & Francis Ltd., United Kingdom.
Jassim, S.Z. and Goff, J.C., 2006. Geology of Iraq. Geological Society, London, p.341.
Keller, E. and Pinter, N., 2002. Active Tectonics, Earthquakes, Uplift and Landscape. Prentice Hall, New Jersey.
Othman, A.A. and Gloaguen, R., 2013a. Automatic extraction and size distribution of landslides in kurdistan region, N.E. Iraq. Remote Sensing, 5, pp.2389-2410.
Othman, A.A. and Gloaguen, R., 2013b. River courses affected by landslides and implications for hazard assessment: A high resolution remote sensing case study in NE Iraq-W Iran. Remote Sensing, 5, pp.1024-1044.
Othman, A.A. and Gloaguen, R., 2014. Improving lithological mapping by SVM classification of spectral and morphological features: The discovery of a new chromite body in the mawat ophiolite complex (Kurdistan, NE Iraq). Remote Sensing, 6, pp.6867-6896.
Ramsey, L.A., Walker R.T. and Jackson, J., 2008. Fold evolution and drainage development in the Zagros mountains of fars province, SE Iran. Basin Research, 20, pp.23-48.
Shihab, A.T., 2015. Structural Analysis Using Remote Sensing and GIS Techniques in the High Folded Zone Between Harir and Bradost Anticlines. University of Baghdad, Northeast Iraq.
Sissakian, V.K. and Abdul-Jabbar, M.F., 2010. Morphometry and genesis of the main transversal gorges in North and Northeast Iraq. Iraqi Bulletin Geological Mining, 6, pp.95-120.
Sissakian, V.K. and Fouad, S.F., 2012. Geological Map of Iraq, Scale 1: 1000 000, 4th ed. Iraq Geological Survey, Baghdad-Iraq.
Sissakian, V.K. and Fouad, S.F., 2014a. The Geology of Erbil and Mahabad Quadrangles, Scale 1:250 000, Sheets No. NJ-38-14 and NJ-38-15, 2nd ed. Iraq Geological Survey, Baghdad, Iraq.
Sissakian, V.K. and Fouad, S.F., 2014b. The Geology of Kirkuk Quadrangle, Scale 1:250 000, Sheet No. NI-38-2, 2nd ed. Iraq Geological Survey, Baghdad, Iraq.
Sissakian, V.K. and Fouad, S.F., 2014c. The Geology of Sulaimaniyah Quadrangles, Scale 1:250 000, Sheet No. NI-38-03, 2nd ed. Iraq Geological Survey, Baghdad, Iraq.
Sissakian, V.K., 1993. Geological Report on Kirkuk Quadrangle, Sheet No. NI- 38-02, Scale 1:250 000. Iraq Geological Survey, Baghdad, Iraq.
Sissakian, V.K., 1995. Geological Report on Al-Mosul Quadrangle, Sheet No. NJ-38-03, Scale 1:250 000. Iraq Geological Survey, Baghdad, Iraq.
Sissakian, V.K., 2013. Geological evolution of the Iraqi mesopotamia foredeep, inner platform and near surroundings of the Arabian plate. Journal of Asian Earth Sciences 72, pp.152-163.
Sissakian, V.K., Abdul Jab’bar, M.F., Al-Ansari, N. and Knutson, S., 2015. Development of galley ali beg gorge, rawnadouz area, North Iraq. Engineering, 7, pp.16-30.
Sissakian, V.K., Abdul-Jab’bar, M.F., Al-Ansari, N. and Knutson, S., 2014a. Meandering of tributaries of the tigris river due to mass movements, within Iraq. Engineering, 6, pp.712-730.
Sissakian, V.K., Al-Ansari, N. and Knutson, S., 2014b. Origin of some transversal linear features of NE - SW trend in Iraq and their geological characters. Natural Science, 6, pp.1-16.
Sissakian, V.K., Kadhum, T.H. and Abdul Jab’bar, M., 2014c. Geomorphology. In: Geology of the high folded zone. Iraqi Bulletin Geological Mining, 6, pp.7-56.
Sissakian, V.K., Othman, A.A. and Ahmed, T.S.H., 2017. Factors Controlling the Development of Wine Glass Forms in the Mountains of the Kurdistan Region. Submitted to GeoKyrdistan/3 Conference, Iraq.
Whitney, B.B. and Hengesh, J.V., 2015. Geomorphological evidence of neotectonic deformation in the carnarvon basin, Western Austrlia. Geomorphology, 228, pp.579-596.
Yacoub, S.Y., Othman, A.A. and Kadhum, T.H., 2012. Geomorphology. In: Geology of the low folded zone. Iraqi Bulletin Geological Mining, 5, pp.7-38.
Copyright (c) 2017 Varoujan K. Sissakian, Ahmed T. Shihab, Arsalan A. Othman
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License [CC BY-NC-SA 4.0] that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).