Effect of Magnesium Salts on Growth and Production of Garlic (Allium sativum L.)

Ikbal M. Al-Barzinji, Alla SH. Naif

Abstract


A Randomized Complete Block Design (R.C.B.D.) experiment with three replicates was conducted to investigate the effect of foliar application of magnesium salts on growth, yield components and some inorganic minerals of leaves of garlic (Allium sativum L.) local variety. The salts (MgSO4.7H2O, Mg(NO3)2.6H2O and MgCl2.6H2O) addition to untreated plants as control. The concentration of Mg were used was constant (1.97 g Mg. L-1 which comes from 2% MgSO4.7H2O). The results revealed that vegetative growth of garlic was affected significantly by magnesium salts. Highest number of leaves was found in plants treated with MgCl2, the treatment which gave the lowest plant height, each of MgSO4 and Mg(NO3)2 had the highest shoot dry weight. Foliar spraying with Mg(NO3)2 produced highest shoot dry matter percent and highest percent of leaves Phosphorus leaves content, significantly compared to other treatments. The results showed that spraying plants with Mg(NO3)2 and MgSO4 improved yield components where head diameter , head weight, cloves number per head and bulbs yield were increased. Foliar spray with MgSO4 had a significant effects on head scale thickness, whereas there were non- significant effects between different Magnesium salts spraying on each of clove dry matter and percent of TSS content. This study concluded that spraying plants with MgSO4 or Mg(NO3)2 twice (45 days after planting and a month later) increased garlic yield and yield quality.

Keywords


Foliar, garlic, magnesium salts, yield

Full Text:

PDF

References


Abdallah, M., Dubousset, L., Meuriot, F., Etienne, P., Avice, J.C. and Ourry, A., 2010. Effect of mineral sulphur availability on nitrogen and sulphur uptake and remobilization during the vegetative growth of Brassica napus L. J Exp Bot., 61(10), pp. 2635–2646.

Al-Sahaf, F.H., 1989. Applying Plant Nutrition. Baghdad. Dar Al-Hikma.

A.O.A.C. 1970. Official Methods of Analysis. 11th ed. Washington. D.C. Association of the official analytical chemist.

Bidwell, R.G.S., 1979. Plant Physiology. 2nd edition. New York. Macmillan Publishing Co. Inc.

Davenport, J.R. and Bentley, E.M., 2001. Does potassium fertilizer form, source and time of application influence potato yield and quality in the Columbia Basin. Amer. J. of Potato Res. 78(4), pp.311-318.

Engeland, R. L., 1991. Growing great garlic: the definitive guide for organic gardeners and small farmers. Okanogan, HSA Library.

Farooqui, M.A., Naruka, I.S., Rathore, S.S., Singh, P.P. and Shaktawat R.P., 2009. Effect of nitrogen and sulphur levels on growth and yield of garlic (Allium sativum L.) As. J. Food Ag-Ind. Special Issue, pp.18-23.

Fixen, P.E., 1993. Crop responses to chloride. Advanced in Agronomy. 50, pp. 107-150.

Hasan, A.A., 2000. Onion and Garlic. Series of Vegetable group, Production Technology and Development Agricultural Practices. 1st ed. Cairo. Al-Qahira Arabic House for Publishing and Distribution.

Hu, H.., Sparks, D. and Evan, J.J., 1991. Sulfur deficiency influences vegetative growth, chlorophyll and element concentrations, and amino acids of pecan. J. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. 116(6), pp.974-980.

Hiatt, A.J., 1967. Reactions in vitro of enzymes involved in CO2 fixation accompanying salt uptake by barley roots. Z-Pflanzenphysiol. 56, pp.233-245.

Holz, G. and Knox-Davies, P.S., 1985. Natural sugars present in different parts of onion bulbs at different growth stages in relation to pectic enzyme production by Fusarium oxysporum f. SP. cepae. Phytophylactica. 17(3), pp. 157-161.

Ibrahim, H.I.M., 2010. Plant Samples: Collection and Analysis. Cairo, Dar Al-Fajr for Publishing and Distribution.

Jackson, K.L., 1958. Soil Chemical Analysis. Englewood, Prenticaints Hall Inc.

Jaggi, R.C., 2004. Effect of sulphur levels and sources on composition and yield of onion (Allium cepa). Indian Journal of Agricultural Science, 74(4), pp.219-220.

Jaggi, R.C. and Dixit, S.P., 1999. Onion (Allium cepa) response of sulphur in representative vegetable growing soils of Kangra Valley of Himachal Pradesh. Indian Journal of Agricultural Science, 69(4), pp.289-291.

John, M.K., 1970. Colorimetric determination of phosphorus in soil and plant materials with ascorbic acid. Soil Science, 109(4), pp.214-220.

Kern, R. and Chrispeels, M.J., 1978. Influence of the axis on the enzymes of protein and amide metabolism in the cotyledon of mung bean seedlings. Plant Physiology, 62(5), pp.815-819.

Kirkby, E.A. and Knight, A.H., 1977. The influence of the level of nitrate nutrition on ion uptake and assimilation, organic acid accumulation and cation-anion balance in whole tomato plants. Plant Physiology, 60, pp.349-353.

Lachover, D.O. and Arnon, I., 1966. Observations on the relationship between heavy potassium deficiency and poor quality of several agricultural products of major crops. In: Potassium and the quality of agricultural products. Proc. 8th Cong. Intern. Potash Institute, Berne, pp.439-464.

Lorenzo, O.A. and Maynard, D.N., 1980. Knots Handbook for Vegetable Growers. 2nd Edition. New York, Willy.

MacDonald, I.R., Macklon, A.E. and Macleod, R.W., 1975. Energy supply and light enhanced chloride uptake wheat laminae. Plant Physiology, 56(5), pp.699-702.

Mayeux, P.R., Agrawal, K.C., Tou, J.S., King, B.T., Lippton, H.L., Hyman, A.L., Kadowiz, P.J. and Namara, D.B., 1998. The pharmacological effects of allicin, a constituent of garlic oil. Agents Actions, 25, pp.182–190.

Mudziwa, N. 2010. Yield and Quality responses of Egyptian white garlic (Allium sativum L.) and wild garlic (Tulbaghia Violacia Harv.) to nitrogen nutrition. MSc. University of Pretoria.

Naruka, I.S., 2000. Effect of row spacing and nitrogen fertilization on growth, yield and quality of garlic cultivars. Ph.D. RAU, Bikaner.

Naruka, I.S. and Dhaka, R.S., 2001. Effect of row spacing and nitrogen fertilization on growth, yield and composition of bulb in garlic (Allium sativum L.) cultivars. Journal of Spices and Aromatic Crops, 10(2), pp.111-117.

Randle, W.M. and Bussard, M.L., 1993. Pungency and sugars of short day onions as affected by S nutrition. Journal of the American Society for Horticultural Sciences, 118(6), pp.766-70.

Reza, A.H., 2006. Design of Experiments for Agriculture and the Natural Sciences. New York. Chapmann & Hall.

Romani, A.M. and Maguire, M.E., 2002. Hormonal regulation of Mg+2 transport and homeosis in eukaryotic cell. Biometals. 15(3), pp.271-283.

Sadarea, S.S., Malavia, D.D., Khanapara, V.D., Dudhatra, M.G., Vyas, M.N. and Mathukia, R.K., 1997. Irrigation and nutrient requirement of garlic (Allium sativum L.) under South Saurashtra region of Gujrat. Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 67(9), pp.402-403.

Shiralipour, A., Haller, W.T. and Garrard, L.A., 1981. Effect of Nitrogen sprays on biomass production and Phosphorus uptake in water hyacinth. J. Aquat. Plant Manage., 19, pp.44-47.

Srivastava, H.S., 2010. Plant Physiology, Biochemistry and Biotechnology. Meerut. Rastogi Publications.

Sterling, S.J. and Eagling, R.D., 2001. Agronomic and allicin yield of Australian grown garlic (Allium sativum). Acta Hort., 555, pp.63–73.

Verma, V., 2008. Textbook of Plant Physiology. New Delhi. Ane Books India.

Yadav, P.K., 2003. Effect of nitrogen and potassium on growth and yield of garlic (Allium sativum L.) in western Rajasthan. Haryana Journal of Horticultural Science, 32(3-4), pp.290-291.




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.14500/aro.10038
View Counter: Abstract | 568 | and PDF | 236 |

Article Metrics

Metrics Loading ...

Metrics powered by PLOS ALM

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Copyright (c) 2016 Ikbal M. Al-Barzinji, Alla SH. Naif

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

  
 


ARO Journal is an OAJ supported by Koya University, it has no article submission/processing charges (APCs).
© 2018, Koya University is a public University accredited by the Ministry of Higher Education and Scientific Research, KRG - F.R. Iraq.