The Suitability of Limestone from Pilaspi Formation (Middle-Late Eocene) for Building Stone in Koya Area, NE Iraq

Hemn M. Omar, Nawzat R. Ismail

Abstract


Suitability of limestone rocks has a crucial importance when stones are used for constructing modern structure. The purpose of this study is to clarify the links between physical, mechanical properties of limestone rocks, also their quality to use as building materials. A total of six limestone rock samples were collected from three different outcrops locations within Pilaspi Formation in Koya area. Engineering geological and geotechnical properties of the limestone rocks in the study area were determined based on the field studies and laboratory tests. The field studies included observations/ measurements of rock mass characteristics such as color, grain size, orientation, bedding thickness and weathering state of the rock materials also spacing, persistence, roughness and infilling material of the discontinuities. Laboratory tests were carried out for determining water content, water absorption, density, uniaxial compressive strength, slake durability and porosity of the rock materials. The study results go well with the national and international standards (Iraqi Standards, 1989; American Society for Testing and Materials, 2004; International Society for Rock Mechanics, 1981) and have shown that the limestone rocks are acceptable for building stone.

Keywords


Building materials, limestone, physical properties, Pilaspi formation, slake durability.

Full Text:

PDF

References


American Society for Testing and Materials, 2004. C568: 2004 Standard specification for limestone dimension stone. America: ASTM.

Anon, 1972. The preparation of maps and plans in term of engineering geology, Quarterly Journal of Engineering Geology, 5(4), pp.293-383.

Bellen, R, Dunnigton, H, Wetzel, R. and Morton, D 1959, Lexique stratigraphique international Intern Geol. Conger. Comm., 3, 10 Asie, Iraq, 333pp.

Benavente, D., Garcia del Cura, M, A., Fort, R. and Ordonez, S., 2004. Durability estimation of porous building stone from pore structure and strength. Journal of the Engineering Geological, 74(1-2), pp.113-127.

Buday, T., 1980. The Regional geology of Iraq, vol. 1: stratigraphy and paleontology. Baghdad: Publication of GEOSURV.

Buday, T. and Jassim, S., 1987. The Regional geology of Iraq, vol. 2: Tectonism, Magmatism and Metamorphism. Baghdad: Publication of GEOSURV.

Dhaher, K.A., 2009. Study of physical and geotechnical properties of some rock units of Pilaspi, Fatha and Injana Formations in Shaqlawa area, northern Iraq, M. Sc., University of Baghdad.

International Society for Rock Mechanics, 1981. Suggested methods for determining swelling and slake durability index properties. ISRM Suggested Method: Rock characterization testing and monitoring. Oxford: ISRM.

Iraqi Standards, 1989. IS No. 1387: 1989 Natural building stone. Baghdad, IS.

Jacobsen, S. and Aarseth, LI., 1999. Effect on wind on drying fram wet porous building material surfaces- A simple model in steady state. Journal of Material and Structure, 32, pp.38-44. Jassim, S.Z. and Goff.J. C., 2006. Geology of Iraq. Prague: Dolin.

Khanal, S. and Tamrakar, N. K., 2009. Evaluation of quality of crushed limestone and-siltstone for road aggregates. Bulletin of Department of Geology, 12, pp.20-42.

Miglio, B. and Willmott, T., 2010. Durability of stone for construction. Journal of ASTM International Selected Technical Papers STP 1514; durability of Building and construction, Sealants and Adhesives, 3, pp.241-246.

Naghoj, N.M., Yuossef, N. A. R. and Maaitah, O. N., 2010. Mechanical properties of natural building stone: Jordanian building limestones as an example, Jordan Journal of Earth and Environmental Sciences, 3(1), pp.37-48.

New Zealand Geotechnical Society, 2005. Field description of soil and rock, New Zealand: Publication of NZ Geotechnical Society.

Ross, K.D., Hart, D. and Butlin, R. N., 1990. Durability tests for natural building stone. Proceedings of the Fifth International Conference on Durability of Building Materials and Components. Brighton, pp.97-111.

Saleh, D.G., 2012. The suitability of limestone of Fatha Formation for building and road aggregates in Nineveh governorate/ North Iraq, Journal of University of Anbar for Pure Science, 6(2), pp.1-13.

Youkhana, R. and Sissakian,V., 1986. Stratigraphy of Shaqlawa-Koisanjaq area. Journal of the Geological Society of Iraq, 19(3), pp.137-154.




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.14500/aro.10068
View Counter: Abstract | 671 | and PDF | 267 |

Article Metrics

Metrics Loading ...

Metrics powered by PLOS ALM

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Copyright (c) 2016 Hemn M. Omar, Nawzat R. Ismail

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

  
 


ARO Journal is an OAJ supported by Koya University, it has no article submission/processing charges (APCs).
© 2013-2020, Koya University is a public University accredited by the Ministry of Higher Education and Scientific Research, KRG - F.R. Iraq.