Application of Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA Markers for Genetic Diversity Assessment of Pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) Cultivars in Duhok Governorate – Kurdistan of Iraq

Dalal Y. Sinjare, Sabrya J. Zubair, Avesta M. Ali, Jaladet M.S. Jubrael


Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers were used to investigate the genetic diversity among 13 cultivars of pomegranate cultivated in Duhok governorate, Kurdistan region/Iraq. Unweighed pairgroup method average clustering divided the 13 cultivars into three main groups. In RAPD analysis, 12 out of 30 employed random primers showed good amplification and polymorphism on pomegranate samples with a total of 107 bands. The percentage of polymorphic DNA bands ranged from 66.6% (OPX-17) to 100% (OPO-07, OPS-17, and OPE-18, OPP-02, OPK-08, OPL-17, and OPR-01) with an average of polymorphic rate of 94.39. According to matrix coefficient, the lowest genetic similarity was observed between Soormiz and Rash Dendikheer (0.1065). The Dereger and Kapepan populations were most similar ones with coefficient of 0.9374.


Genetic diversity, random amplified polymorphic DNA markers, pomegranate

Full Text:



Behzadi Shahrbabaki, H., 1997. Genetic Diversity of Pomegranate Genotypes in Iran. Agriculture Education Publication, Karaj, Iran.

Dalal, Y.S., 2013. Microsatellite Application and Genetic Characterization of Pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) in Duhok Province, Kurdistan region, Iraq. MSc. Thesis. Duhok University.

Durgac, C., Ozgen, M., Simsek, O., Kacar, Y., Kiyga, Y., Celebi, S., Gunduz, K. and Serce, S., 2008. Molecular and pomological diversity among pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) cultivars in Eastern Mediterranean region of Turkey. African Journal of Biotechnology, 7, pp.1294-1301.

Ercisli, S., Agar, G., Yildirim, N., Duralija, B., Vokurka, A. and Karlidag, H., 2011. Genetic diversity in wild sweet cherries (Prunus avium L.) in Turkey revealed by SSR markers. Genetics and Molecular Research, 10, pp.1211-1219.

Harlan, J.R., 1992. Crops and Man. 2nd ed. American Society of Agronomy and Crop Science Society of America, Madison, WI. pp.289.

Hasnaoui, N., Mars, M., Chibani, J. and Trifi, M., 2010. Molecular polymorphisms in Tunisian pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) as revealed by RAPD fingerprints. Diversity, 2, pp.107-114.

Jbir, R., Hasanaoui, N., Mars, M., Marrakchi, M. and Trifi, M., 2008. Characterization of Tunisian pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) cultivars using amplified fragment length polymorphism analysis. Scientia Horticulturae, 115, pp.231-237.

Levin, G.M., 1994. Pomegranate (Punica granatum) plant genetic resources in Turkmenistan. Plant Genetic Resource Newsletters, 97, pp.31-36.

Nei, M. and Li., W.H., 1979. Mathematical model for studying genetic variation in terms of restriction endonucleases. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA, 76, pp.5269-5273.

Nemati, Z., Tehranifar, A., Farsi, M., Mirshamsi, K.A., Nemati, H. and Khayat, M., 2012. Evaluation of genetic diversity of Iranian pomegranate cultivars using fruit morphological characteristics and AFLP markers. Notulae Botanicae Horti Agrobotanici Cluj, 40(1), pp.261-268.

Ozgen, M., Durgac, C., Serce, S. and Kaya, C., 2008. Chemical and antioxidant properties of pomegranate cultivars grown in Mediterranean region of Turkey. Food Chemistry, 111, pp.703-706.

Rohlf, F.J. 1993. NTSYS-PC Numerical Taxonomy and Multivariate Analysis System. Vol. 11. Version 2. Exeter Software, Setauket, New York.

Sarkhosh, A., Zamani, Z., Fatahi, R. and Ebadi, A., 2006. RAPD markers reveal polymorphism among some Iranian pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) genotypes. Scientia Horticulturae, 111, pp.24-29.

Shahbaz, S.I., 2010. Trees and Shrubs (A Guide of Trees and Shrubs of Kurdistan Region of Iraq). University Press, Duhok.

Verma, N., Mohanty, A. and Lal, A., 2010. Pomegranate genetic resources and germplasm conservation: A Review. Fruit Vegetable Cereal Sci Biotechnol, 4(2), pp.120-125.

Weigand, F., Baum, M. and Udupa, S., 1993. DNA Molecular Marker Techniques, Technical Manual, No. 20 International Center for Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas (ICARDA). Aleppo, Syria.

Zamani, Z., Sarkhosh, A., Fatahi, R. and Ebadi, A., 2007. Genetic relationships among pomegranate genotypes studied by fruit characteristics and RAPD markers. The Journal of Horticultural Science and Biotechnology, 82, pp.11-18.

View Counter: Abstract | 802 | and PDF | 407 |

Article Metrics

Metrics Loading ...

Metrics powered by PLOS ALM


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2016 Dalal Y. Sinjare, Sabrya J. Zubair, Avesta M. Ali, Jaladet M.S. Jubrael

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.


ARO Journal is an OAJ supported by Koya University, it has no article submission/processing charges (APCs).
© 2013-2019, Koya University is a public University accredited by the Ministry of Higher Education and Scientific Research, KRG - F.R. Iraq.