Male Rat Susceptibility for Liver and Kidney Injury

Sarkawt Hamad, Karwan I. Othman, Karwan J. Hamad, Balkes H. Rasul, Shorsh M. Abdulla, Ismael A. Ismael


The experimental study of this paper was designed to investigate male rat susceptibility to liver injury. A combination of two experimental animal models (Lead acetate for tissue injury (80 mg / L) and castration) had been used on twenty male rats, they were divided into two groups sham (n = 10); castrated (n = 10). Results revealed that, liver weight reduced significantly (P < 0.05) in sham group in comparison with castrated rats, but kidney weight changed slightly. Also, serum aminotransferase (AST) was significantly higher in sham versus castrated rats. Neither alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) nor malondialdehyde (MDA) changed. In conclusion, the absence of male sex hormone would delay tissue injury of male rat organs especially liver organ.


Alanine aminotransferase, liver injury, testosterone.

Full Text:



Block, D.B., Mesquita, F.F., de Lima, I.P., Boer, P.A. and Gontijo, J.A., 2015. Fetal kidney programming by maternal smoking eexposure: Effects on kidney structure, blood pressure and urinary sodium excretion in adult offspring. Nephron, 129(4), pp.283-392.

Chen, H., Jin, S., Guo, J., Kombairaju, P., Biswal, S. and Zirkin, B.R., 2015. Knockout of the transcription factor Nrf2: Effects on testosterone production by aging mouse Leydig cells. Mol Cell Endocrinol, 409, pp.113-120.

Coss, C.C., Bauler, M., Narayanan, R., Miller, D.D. and Dalton, J.T., 2012. Alanine aminotransferase regulation by androgens in non-hepatic tissues. Pharm Res, 29, pp.1046-1056.

Duran-Pasten, M.L., Fiordelisio-Coll, T. and Hernandez-Cruz, A., 2013. Castration-induced modifications of GnRH-elicited [Ca2+](i) signaling patterns in male mouse pituitary gonadotrophs in situ: studies in the acute pituitary slice preparation. Biol Reprod, 88(2), pp.32

El Sherrif, Y., Potts, J.R., Howard, M.R., Barnardo, A., Cairns, S., Knisely, A.S. and Verma, S., 2013. Hepatotoxicity from anabolic androgenic steroids marketed as dietary supplements: contribution from ATP8B1/ABCB11 mutations?. Liver Int, 33(8), pp.1266-1270.

Fan, S., Hao, Z.Y., Zhang, L., Chen, X.G., Zhou, J., Zang, Y.F., Tai, S. and Liang, C.Z., 2014. Increased chromogranin A and neuron-specific enolase in rats with chronic nonbacterial prostatitis induced by 17-beta estradiol combined with castration. Int J Clin Exp Pathol, 7(7), pp.3992-3999.

Gueutin, V, Vallet M, Jayat M, Peti-Peterdi J, Corniere N, Leviel F, Sohet F, Wagner CA, Eladari D, Chambrey R, 2013. Renal beta-intercalated cells maintain body fluid and electrolyte balance. J Clin Invest, 123, pp.4219-4231.

Hoedebecke, K., Rerucha, C., Maxwell, K. and Butler, J., 2013. Drug-induced liver injury secondary to testosterone prohormone dietary supplement use. J Spec Oper Med, 13(4), pp.1-5.

Kelly, D.M., Nettleship, J.E., Akhtar, S., Muraleedharan, V., Sellers, D.J., Brooke, J.C., McLaren, D.S., Channer, K.S. and Jones, T.H., 2014. Testosterone suppresses the expression of regulatory enzymes of fatty acid synthesis and protects against hepatic steatosis in cholesterol-fed androgen deficient mice. Life Sci, 109(2), pp.95-103.

Mikolasevic, I., Orlic, L., Zaputovic, L., Racki, S., Cubranic, Z., Anic, K., Devcic, B. and Stimac, D., 2015. Usefulness of liver test and controlled attenuation parameter in detection of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in patients with chronic renal failure and coronary heart disease. Wien Klin Wochenschr, 127(11), pp.451-458

Naik, S.R., Thakare, V.N. and Patil, S.R., 2011. Protective effect of curcumin on experimentally induced inflammation, hepatotoxicity and cardiotoxicity in rats: evidence of its antioxidant property. Exp Toxicol Pathol, 63(5), pp.419-431.

Papastergiadis, A., Mubiru, E., Van Langenhove, H. and De Meulenaer, B., 2012. Malondialdehyde measurement in oxidized foods: evaluation of the spectrophotometric thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) test in various foods. J Agric Food Chem, 60(38), pp.9589-9594.

Perez-Rodriguez, L., Romero-Haro, A.A., Sternalski, A., Muriel, J., Mougeot, F., Gil, D. and Alonso-Alvarez, C., 2015. Measuring oxidative stress: the confounding effect of lipid concentration in measures of lipid peroxidation. Physiol Biochem Zool, 88(3), pp.345-351.

Pertsov, S.S., Koplik, E.V., Kalinichenko, L.S. and Alekseeva, IV, 2014. Effect of melatonin on lipid peroxidation in the blood of rats with various behavioral characteristics during acute emotional stress]. Ross Fiziol Zh Im I M Sechenova, 100(6), pp.759-766.

Rostami, B., Nematbakhsh, M., Pezeshki, Z., Talebi, A., Sharifi, M.R., Moslemi, F., Eshraghi-Jazi, F. and Ashrafi, F., 2014. Effect of testosterone on Cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity in surgically castrated rats. Nephrourol Mon, 6(5), pp.7.

Sharma, S., Raghuvanshi, S., Jaswal, A., Shrivastava, S. and Shukla, S., 2015. Lead acetate-induced hepatoxicity in wistar rats: possible protective role of combination therapy. J Environ Pathol Toxicol Oncol, 34(1), pp.23-34.

Shymans'kyi, I.O., Khomenko, A.V., Lisakovs'ka, O.O., Labudzyns'kyi, D.O., Apukhovs'ka, L.I. and Velykyi, M.M., 2014. The ROS-generating and antioxidant systems in the liver of rats treated with prednisolone and vitamin D3]. Ukr Biokhim Zh, 86(5), pp.111-125.

Stimac, D., Milic, S., Dintinjana, R.D., Kovac, D. and Ristic, S., 2002. Androgenic/Anabolic steroid-induced toxic hepatitis. J Clin Gastroenterol, 35(4), pp.350-352.

Timcheh-Hariri, A., Balali-Mood, M., Aryan, E., Sadeghi, M. and Riahi-Zanjani, B., 2012. Toxic hepatitis in a group of 20 male body-builders taking dietary supplements. Food Chem Toxicol, 50(10), pp.3826-3832.

Venkareddy, L.K. and Muralidhara, 2015. Potential of casein as a nutrient intervention to alleviate lead (Pb) acetate-mediated oxidative stress and neurotoxicity: First evidence in Drosophila melanogaster. Neurotoxicology, 48, pp.142-151.

Vieira, R.P., Franca, R.F., Damaceno-Rodrigues, N.R., Dolhnikoff, M., Caldini, E.G., Carvalho, C.R. and Ribeiro, W., 2008. Dose-dependent hepatic response to subchronic administration of nandrolone decanoate. Med Sci Sports Exerc, 4095), pp.842-847.

Vilar-Gomez, E., Martinez-Perez, Y., Calzadilla-Bertot, L., Torres-Gonzalez, A., Gra-Oramas, B., Gonzalez-Fabian, L., Friedman, S.L., Diago, M. and Romero-Gomez, M., 2015. Weight Loss via Lifestyle Modification Significantly Reduces Features of Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis. Gastroenterology, 149(2), pp.367-378.

Wang, M.Y., Anderson, G., Nowicki, D. and Jensen, J., 2008. Hepatic protection by noni fruit juice against CCl(4)-induced chronic liver damage in female SD rats. Plant Foods Hum Nutr, 63(3), pp.141-145.

Waseem, N., Butt, S.A. and Hamid, S., 2014. Amelioration of lead induced changes in ovary of mice, by garlic extract. J Pak Med Assoc, 64(7), pp.798-801.

Yu, M.W., Cheng, S.W. and Lin, M.W., 2000. Androgen-receptor gene CAG repeats, plasma testosterone levels, and risk of hepatitis B-related hepatocellular carcinoma. J Natl Cancer Inst, 92(24), pp.2023-2028.

View Counter: Abstract | 620 | and PDF | 315 |

Article Metrics

Metrics Loading ...

Metrics powered by PLOS ALM


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2016 Sarkawt Hamad, Karwan I. Othman, Karwan J. Hamad, Balkes H. Rasul, Shorsh M. Abdulla, Ismael A. Ismael

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.


ARO Journal is an OAJ supported by Koya University, it has no article submission/processing charges (APCs).
© 2013-2019, Koya University is a public University accredited by the Ministry of Higher Education and Scientific Research, KRG - F.R. Iraq.