Prevalence of Sarcocystis Species (Sarcocystis ovicanis and Sarcocystis capricanis) in Tongue Muscle of Sheep and Goats in Duhok Province, Kurdistan Region, North Iraq

Ihsan K. Zangana, Shivan N. Hussein


Sarcocystis species are coccidian protozoan parasites of the phylum apicomplexa. The prevalence of Sarcocystis species (Sarcocystis ovicanis and Sarcocystis capricanis) in tongue muscle of sheep and goats that collected from abattoir and outside of abattoir (at Butchers Markets) in Duhok province was determined for the first time during the period of 4 months from September 01, 2014, to January 03, 2015. Three techniques were applied for this purpose. Direct scotch cellophane adhesive tape test, muscle mincing and squash method, and pepsin digestion technique. The overall prevalence was 97% in sheep and 100% in goats. No significant difference (p>0.05) was obtained between male and female of both species. Histopathological analysis revealed different size and shape of microcysts with thick cyst wall, in addition to mild histological changes.


Microcysts, Sarcocystis species (Sarcocystis ovicanis and Sarcocystis capricanis), Tongue muscle of sheep and goats.

Full Text:



Barham, M., Stützer, H., Karanis, P., Latif, B. and Neiss, W., 2004. Seasonal variation in Sarcocystis spp. Infections in goats in northern Iraq. Parasitology, 130(02), pp.151-156.

Beyazit, A., Yazicioglu, O. and Karear, Z., 2007. The prevalence of ovine

Sarcocystis spp. In Izmir Province. Ankara Üniversitesi Veteriner FakültesiDergisi, 54, pp.111-116.

Boncroft, J.D. and Stevens, A., 1999. Theory and Practice of Histological

Techniques. 4th ed. Churchill Livingstone, London, pp.127-129.

Dafedar, A.M., D’Souza, P.E., Ananda, K. and Puttalakshmamma, G., 2008. Prevalence of sarcocystosis in goats slaughtered at an abattoir in Bangalore, Karnataka state. Veterinary World, 1(11), pp.335-337.

Dehaghi, M.M., Fathi, S. and Asl, E.N., 2011. Survey of Sarcocystis infection in slaughtered goats in Kerman Abattoir, Southeast of Iran. Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances, 10(9), pp.1205-1208.

Dubey, J. and Lindsay, D.S., 2006. Neosporosis, toxoplasmosis, and sarcocystosis in ruminants. Veterinary Clinics of North America: Food Animal Practice, 22(3), pp.645-671.

Dubey, J.P. and Fayer, R., 1983. Zoonosis in practice. Sarcocystosis. British Veterinary Journal, 139, pp.371-377.

Dubey, J.P., Lindsay, D.S., Speer, C.A., Fayer, R. and Livingston, C.W., 1988. Sarcocystis arieticanis and other Sarcocystis species in sheep in the United States. Journal of Parasitology, 74, pp.1033-1038.

Dubey, J.P., Speer, C.A. and Charleston, W.A.J., 1989b. Ultrastructural

differentiation between Sarcocystis of Sarcocystis hirsuta and S. hominis. Veterinary Parasitology, 34, pp.153-157.

Dubey, J.P., Speer, C.A. and Fayer, R., 1989. Sarcocystosis of Animals and Man. CRC Press Inc., Boca Raton, Florida, pp.113-120.

Dubey, J.P., Speer, C.A., Munday, B.L. and Lipscomb, T.P., 1989a. Ovian

sporozoan encephalomyelitis linked to Sarcocystis infection. Veterinary

Parasitology, 34, pp.159-163.

Fayer, R., 2004. Sarcocystis spp. In human infections. Clinical Microbiology Reviews, 17(4), pp.894-902.

Fukuyo, M., Battsetseg, G. and Byambaa, B., 2002. Prevalence of Sarcocystis infection in meat-producing animals in Mongolia. The Southeast Asian Journal of Tropical Medicine and Public Health, 33(3), pp.490-495.

Hamidininejet, H., Jalali, M.H.R. and Nabavi, L., 2012. Survey on Sarcocystis infection in slaughtered cattle in South-West of Iran. Emphasized on evaluation of muscle squash in comparison with digestion method. Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advance, 9(12), pp.1724-1724.

Hosseini, S.R., Shakerian, A. and Tahamtan, N., 2012. Survey of Sarcocystis infection in slaughtered sheep in Isfahan, Qom and Shahre-Kord, Iran. Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances, 11(15), pp.2683-2686.

Hussein, S.H.N., 2015. Prevalence of Sarcocystis Infection in Small Ruminants (Sheep and Goats) and Experimental Infection in Dogs and Cats in Duhok Province. MSc Thesis Submitted to Council of College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Duhok.

Juyal, P.D., Ruprah, N.S. and Chhabra, M.B., 1989. Rapid isolation of intact micro-sarcocystis (Protozoa-Apicomplexa) cysts from muscular tissue. Indian J Animal Health, 28, pp.69-70.

Latif, B., Al-Delemi, J., Mohammed, B., Al-Bayati, S. and Al-Amiry, A., 1999. Prevalence of Sarcocystis spp. In meat-producing animals in Iraq. Veterinary Parasitology, 84(1), pp.85-90.

Morsy, K., Saleh, A., Al-Ghamdi, A., Abdel-Ghaffara, F., Al-Rasheid, K.,

Bashtar, A.R. and Mehlhorn, H., 2011. Prevalence pattern and biology of

Sarcocystis capracanis infection in the Egyptian goats: A light and ultrastructural study. Veterinary Parasitology, 181(2), pp.75-82.

View Counter: Abstract | 559 | and PDF | 496 |

Article Metrics

Metrics Loading ...

Metrics powered by PLOS ALM


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2017 Ihsan K. Zangana, Shivan N. Hussein

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.


ARO Journal is an OAJ supported by Koya University, it has no article submission/processing charges (APCs).
© 2013-2019, Koya University is a public University accredited by the Ministry of Higher Education and Scientific Research, KRG - F.R. Iraq.