Thermal Effects on Compressive Strength of Local Limestone and Claystone

Rahel K. Ibrahim, Nawzat R. Ismail, Hemn M. Omar


Limestone and claystone are widely used in rocky mountainous areas as building materials in Kurdistan region, in particular, the city of Koya. The outbreak of fire in buildings will have a great impact on strengths of building materials. The property performance of these local materials is heavenly understudied. This research investigates the impact of high temperature on the physicomechanical properties of limestone and claystone from Fatha Formation in Koya in Kurdistan region of Iraq. For this purpose, cores were taken from intact rocks; their ends were cut by a mechanical saw to obtain a cylindrical shape and immersed in water for 24 h, and then, subjected to physicomechanical tests of specific gravity, water absorption, porosity, and uniaxial compressive strength. For determining the residual compressive strength, the specimens were taken out from water, surface dried, and exposed to high temperatures of 450, and 650°C for 2 h using an electric oven. The results showed that claystone specimens show more stable mechanical properties than the limestone after exposure to high temperatures, and the high temperature causes lightening in color and significant cracks in both materials.


Compressive strength, Claystone, Limestone, Kurdistan Region, Thermal effects

Full Text:



American Society for Testing and Materials, 2014. D7012: 2014 Standard Test Methods for Compressive Strength and Elastic Moduli of Intact Rock Core under Varying States of Stress and Temperatures. America: ASTM

Bell, F.G. and Lindsay, P. 1999. The petrographic and geomechanical properties of some sandstones from the Newspaper Member of the Natal Group near Durban. Engineering Geology. 53. pp. 57-81.

Boggs, Jr., Sam. 2006. Principles of sedimentology and stratigraphy, 4th ed. New Jersey: Pearson Prentice Hall.

Buday, T. and Jassim, S., 1987. The Regional geology of Iraq, vol. 2: Tectonism, Magmatism and Metamorphism. Baghdad: Publication of GEOSURV.

Buday, T., 1980. The Regional geology of Iraq, vol. 1: stratigraphy and paleontology. Baghdad: Publication of GEOSURV.

Egger, A. E. 2006. Rocks and minerals; the silicate minerals visionlearing, Vol. EAS-2 (9).

Gomez-Heras, M. , McCabe, S., Smith, B. J. and Fort, R., 2009. Impacts of fire on stone-built heritage. Journal of Architecture and Conservation, 15 (2), pp. 47-58.

Gomez-Heras, M., Alvarez de Buergo, M., Fort, R., Hajpal, M. ,Török, A. and Varas, M. J., 2006. Evolution of porosity in Hungarian building stones after simulated burning. International Conference on Heritage, Weathering and Conservation. Madrid, pp. 513-519.

Hajpál, M. and Török, Á., 2004. Mineralogical and colour changes of quartz sandstones by heat. Environmental Geology, 46(3-4), pp. 311-322.

Hajpál, M., 2002. Changes in sandstones of historical monuments exposed to fire or high temperature. Fire Technology, 38, pp 373-382.

Jassim, S. Z. and Goff. J. C., 2006. Geology of Iraq. Prague: Dolin.

Koca, M.Y., Ozden, G., Yavuz, A.B., Kincal, C., Onargan, T. and Kucuk, K., 2006. Changes in the engineering properties of marble in fire-exposed columns. International Journal of Rock Mechanics and Mining Sciences, 43, pp. 520-530.

Malaga-Starzec, K., Akesson, U., Lindqvist, J. E. and Schouenborg, B., 2006. Microscopic and macroscopic characterization of the porosity of marble as a function of temperature and impregnation. Construction and Building Materials, 20, pp.939-947.

Mohamad, E.T., Dan,M.F., Aziz, A. A., Maiye, O. M. and Liang, M. 2013. The Effect of Moisture Content on the Strength and Anisotropy Index of Tropically Weathered Shale. Electronic Journal of Geotechnical Engineering, 18, pp. 5967-5979.

New Zealand Geotechnical Society, 2005. Field description of soil and rock, New Zealand: Publication of NZ Geotechnical Society.

Omer, H., 2009. Primary geotechnical assessment of Haibat -Sultan area and its suitability for proposed tunnel construction, M.Sc., Koya University.

Ozguven, A. and Ozcelik, Y., 2013. Investigation of some property changes of natural building stones exposed to fire and high heat. Construction and Building Materials, 38, pp. 813-821.

Sengun, N., 2014. Influence of thermal damage on the physical and mechanical properties of carbonate rocks, Arabian Journal of Geosciences, 7(12), pp. 5543-5551.

Török, Á. and Hajpál, M., 2005. Effect of temperature changes on the mineralogy and physical properties of sandstones, a laboratory study, Restoration of Building and Monuments, 11(4), pp.211-218.

Yong, R. N. and Thomas, H.R. 1999. Geoenvironmental Engineering: Ground Contamination: Pollutant Management and remediation. British Geotechnical Society Geoenvironmental Engineering Conference. London: Thomas Telford.

Youkhana, R. and Sissakian,V., 1986. Stratigraphy of Shaqlawa-Koisanjaq area. Journal of the Geological Society of Iraq, 19(3), pp.137-154.

View Counter: Abstract | 180 | and PDF | 80 |

Article Metrics

Metrics Loading ...

Metrics powered by PLOS ALM


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2017 Rahel K. Ibrahim, Nawzat R. Ismail, Hemn M. Omar

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.


ARO Journal is an OAJ supported by Koya University, it has no article submission/processing charges (APCs).
© 2018, Koya University is a public University accredited by the Ministry of Higher Education and Scientific Research, KRG - F.R. Iraq.