Chemical and Structural Analysis of Rocks Using X-ray Fluorescence and X-ray Diffraction Techniques
Rock examinations for mining and commercial use are a vital process to save money and time. A variety of methods and approaches have been used to analyze rocks and among them, X-ray fluorescence (XRF), and X-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques proved to be an accurate method. This research was conducted to evaluate the utility and reliability of XRF and XRD to analyze the major and trace elements of rocks as well as their crystalline structures. Results showed that XRF and XRD techniques are fast and reliable, nondestructive and non-invasive analytical tools for mineral analysis, particularly for rocks. For this purpose, the analysis of 28 samples of rocks, which collected from three different places of Kurdistan region-Iraq, is reported. These places are Haybat Sultan (HS) region in Koya city as well as TaqTaq (TA) and Garmuk (GT) district nearby Koya city. Throughout this analysis, 34 major and trace elements were detected in the rocks collected from HS region, whereas forty major and trace elements were detected in the rocks collected from TA district and GT district. In addition, it was found that the structures of these rocks were crystalline in nature. This was proved through the value of diffracted angle and it was found that the majority of these rocks are oxides. The external view (the appearance) of all collected rocks was also discussed and it was found that each rock consists of a variety of minerals which will be the reason that each rock has a specific color.
Abdullah, B.A., Chaqmaqchee, F.A.I., and Anwer, S.S., 2017. Determination of major and minor elements in kids’ milk using XRF technique. Journal of Chemical, Biological and Physical Sciences, 7, pp.593-598.
Birks, L., 1946. Particle size determination from X-ray Line Broadening. Journal of Applied Physics, 17, pp.687-692.
Breeding, C.M., Magana, S.E., and Shigley, J.E., 2018. Natural-color green diamonds: A beautiful conundrum. Gems and Gemo, 54, pp.2-27.
Chaqmaqchee, F.A.I., and Baker, A.G., 2016. Study and characterization of polyaniline at various doping of LiCl wt.% using electrical measurements and XRF analysis. Journal of Research Updates in Polymer Science, 4, pp.188-190.
Cornaby, S., Mena, A.R., Pew, H.K., Moody, P.W., Hughes, T., Stradling, A., Turner, D.C., and Knight, L.V., 2001. An XRD/XRF instrument for the microanalysis of rocks and minerals. Meas. Sci. Technol, 12, pp.676-683.
Faraj, M.G., Chaqmaqchee, F.A.I., and Omar, H.D., 2017. Structural, morphological and electrical properties of Zn doped PbS thin films by chemical spray pyrolysis technique. JOAM, 19, pp.421-416.
Faraj, M.G., Kaka, A.K., and Omar, H.D., 2019. Electrical, optical and structural properties of copper oxide thin films deposited on plastic substrate by spray pyrolysis technique, ARO, 7, pp.14-18.
Fatah, S.S., and Mohialdeen, I.M.J., 2016. Hydrocarbon generation potential and thermal maturity of Middle Jurassic Sargelu Formation in Miran Field, Sulaimani Area, Kurdistan Region, NE Iraq. Journal of Zankoy Sulaimani, 2, pp.213-228.
Hassan, M.M., Jones, B.G., Buckman, S., Al-Jubory, A.I., and Ismail, S.A., 2015. Source area and tectonic provenance of Paleocene-Eocene red bed clastics from the Kurdistan area NE Iraq: Bulk-rock geochemistry. Journal of African Earth Sciences, 109, pp.68-86.
Hunt, J.M., 1996. Petroleum Geochemistry and Geology. 2nd ed. W.H. Freeman and Company, New York, p.743. Lopez, J.M.G., Bauluz, B., Nieto, C.F. and Oliete, A.Y., 2005. Factors controlling the trace-element distribution in fine-grained rocks: The Albian kaolinite-rich deposits of the Oliete Basin (NE Spain). Chemical Geology, 214, pp.1-19.
Loubser, M., and Verryn, S., 2008. Combining XRF and XRD analyses and sample preparation to solve mineralogical problems. South African Journal of Geology, 111, pp.229-238.
Marinangeli, L., Pompilio, L., Baliva, A., Billotta, S., Bonanno, G., Domeneghetti, M.C., Fioretti, A.M., Menozzi, O., Nestola, F., Piluso, E., Pondrelli, M., Salvia, V.L., Somma, M.C., Tateo, F., Petrinca, P., Giulio, C.D., and Tangari, A.C., 2015. Development of an ultra-miniaturised XRD/XRF instrument for the in situ mineralogical and chemical analysis of planetary soils and rocks: Implication for archaeometry. Rendiconti Lincei. Scienze Fisiche e Naturali, 26, pp.529-537.
Meenaa, B.I., Omar, K.A.K., Khan, A., Chaqmaqchee, F.A.I., and Alsalihi, E., 2018. Characterization and comparison of clay from Iraq and Iran for bricks production. Clay Research, 37, pp.8-13.
Mirza, T.A., Kalaitzidis, S.P., Mohammed, S.H., Rashid, S.G., and Petrou, X., 2017. Geochemistry and genesis of sulphide ore deposits in Sharosh Village, Qandil Series, Kurdistan Region, NE Iraq. Arabian Journal of Geosciences, 10, pp.428-446.
Mishra, R., Chhalodia, A.K., and Tiwari, S.K., 2018. Recent progress in nanodiamonds: Synthesis, properties and their potential applications. Ver. Funct. Nano, 2, pp.1-23.
Mohammed, T.A.M., 2012. Composition and phase mineral variation of Portland cement in Mass Factory Sulaimani Kurdistan Region NE- Iraq. International Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences, 12, pp.109-118.
Mohialdeen, I.M.J., Hakimi, M.H., and Al-Beyati, F.M., 2015. Biomarker characteristics of certain crude oils and the oil-source rock correlation for the Kurdistan oilfields, Northern Iraq. Arab J Geosci, 8, pp.507-523.
Nayak, P.S., and Singh, B.K., 2007. Instrumental characterization of clay by XRF, XRD and FTIR. Bulletin of Materials Science, 30, pp.235-238.
Roser, B.P., and Korsch, R.J. 1988. Provenance signatures of sandstone-mudstone suites determined using discriminant function analysis of major-element data. Chemical Geology, 67, pp.119-139.
Sanchez, J.S., Romani, J.R.V., Mosquera, D.F., and Alves, C.A., 2008. Study of origin and composition of coatings in a monument built with granitic rocks, by SEM, XRD, XRF and DTA-TGA. X-Ray Spectrom, 37, pp.346-354.
Sarrazin, P., Blake, D., Bish, D., Vaniman, D., and Collins, S., 1998. A miniature XRD/XRF instrument for in-situ characterization of Martian soils and rocks. Journal of Physique. IV France, 8, pp.465-470.
Sheng, X.L., Yan, Q.B., Ye, F., Zheng, Q.R., Su, G., 2011. T-carbon: A novel carbon allotrope. Physical Review Letters, 106, pp.155703-5.
Tissot, B.P., and Welte, D.H., 1984. Petroleum Formation and Occurrence. 2nd Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Heidelberg, New York, p.699.
Tiwari, S.K., Kumar, V., Huczko, A., Oraon, R., De Adhikari, A., and Nayak, G.C., 2016. Magical allotropes of carbon: Prospects and applications. Critical Reviews in Solid State and Materials Sciences, 41, pp.257-317.
Vaniman, D., Bish, D. and Chipera, S., 1991. In-situ planetary surface analyses: The potential of X-ray diffraction with simultaneous X-ray fluorescence. Lunar and Planetary Science Conference, 22, pp.1429-1430.
Vaniman, D., Blake, D., Bish, D., Collins, S., Sarrazin, P., Elliot, T., and Chipera, S., 1998. Landed XRD/XRF analyses of prime target in the search for past or present Martian life. Journal of Geophysical Research, 103, pp.31477-31489.
Wadsworth, W.B., and Baird, A.K., 1989. Modal analysis of granitic rocks by X-RAY diffraction. Canadian Minerologist, 27, pp.323-341.
Copyright (c) 2020 Mohammed M. Sabri
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License [CC BY-NC-SA 4.0] that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).