Natural Dye of Beetroot
An Agent for Spectrophotometric Determination of Atenolol in the Pharmaceutical Formulations
In this study, a simple and indirect spectrophotometric method for the quantification of atenolol in pharmaceutical formulations, utilizing a natural food dye extracted from red beet root, is presented. The process involves the oxidation of atenolol in a 1 mol/LHCl acidic medium, using an excess of potassium persulfate. Subsequently, the resulting tablet solution is employed to fade the red beetroot dye, and the solution is measured spectrophotometrically. The optimized reaction conditions consist of a 16 µg/mL atenolol solution, 2.1 mL (100 µg/mL) of potassium persulfate, and 5 mL (100 µg/mL) of red beetroot dye. Spectrophotometric measurements were performed at 535 nm, and the linear range for quantification was found to be 4–22 µg/mL (R2 = 0.9987). The method exhibited a limit of detection of 0.01 µg/mL. Notably, the proposed method was successfully applied to analyze various commercial brands of pharmaceutical formulations; yielding results consistent with those obtained using the pharmacopeia method. This research offers a valuable and accessible technique for atenolol quantification, demonstrating potential significance in pharmaceutical analysis and quality control processes.
Abdelrahman, A.H., Abdelrahman, M.A., and Elbadawy, M.K., 2013. Possibility of using the beet dyes as a laser gain medium. Natural Science, 5(11), pp.1183-1188. DOI: https://doi.org/10.4236/ns.2013.511144
Al-Ghannam, S.M., 2006. A simple spectrophotometric method for the determination of beta-blockers in dosage forms. Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis, 40(1), pp.151-156. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpba.2001.12.001
Al-Ghannam, S.M., and Belal, F., 2002. Kinetic spectrophotometric determination of atenolol in dosage forms. Journal of AOAC International, 85(4), pp.817-823. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1093/jaoac/85.4.817
Amin, A.S., Ragab, G.H., and Saleh, H., 2002. Colorimetric determination of beta-blockers in pharmaceutical formulations. Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis, 30(4), pp.1347-1353. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0731-7085(02)00205-4
Anastas, P.T., 1999. Green chemistry and the role of analytical methodology development. Critical Reviews in Analytical Chemistry, 29(3), pp.167-175. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/10408349891199356
Antakli, S., Nejem, L., and Joumaa, M.A., 2020. Determination of atenolol in tablet formulation by analytical spectrophotometry. Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology, 13(2), pp.609-614. DOI: https://doi.org/10.5958/0974-360X.2020.00115.8
Argekar, A.P., and Powar, S.G., 2000. Simultaneous determination of atenolol and amlodipine in tablets by high-performance thin-layer chromatography. Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis, 21(6), pp.1137-1142. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0731-7085(99)00210-1
Basima, A.A.S., Afyaa, M.Y., and Najih, H.S., 2022. Visible spectrophotometric method for quantitative estimation of atenolol drug using cerium (III and IV). AIP Conference Proceedings, 2660(1), p.20097.
Bonato, P.S., and Briguenti, A.C.C., 2005. Quantitative analysis of beta-blockers in pharmaceutical preparations by capillary electrophoresis. Drug Development and Industrial Pharmacy, 31(2), pp.209-214. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1081/DDC-200047809
Ferraro, M.C.F., Castellano, P.M., and Kaufman, T.S., 2004. Chemometric determination of amiloride hydrochloride, atenolol, hydrochlorothiazide and timolol maleate in synthetic mixtures and pharmaceutical formulations. Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis, 34(2), pp.305-314. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0731-7085(03)00521-1
Gotardo, M.A., Sequinel, R., Pezza, L., and Pezza, H.R., 2008. Determination of atenolol in pharmaceutical formulations by diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. Ecletica Quimica, 33(4), pp.7-12. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1590/S0100-46702008000400001
Goyal, R.N., and Singh, S.P., 2006. Voltammetric determination of atenolol at C60-modified glassy carbon electrodes. Talanta, 69(4), pp.932-937. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.talanta.2005.11.041
Goyal, R.N., Gupta, V.K., Oyama, M., and Bachheti, N., 2006. Differential pulse voltammetric determination of atenolol in pharmaceutical formulations and urine using nanogold modified indium tin oxide electrode. Electrochemistry Communications, 8(1), pp.65-70. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.elecom.2005.10.011
Gülcü, A., Yücesoy, C., and Serin, S., 2004. Spectrophotometric determination of some beta-blockers in dosage forms based on complex formation with Cu(II) and Co(II). Farmaco, 59(6), pp.487-492. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.farmac.2003.12.010
Hoffman, B.B., Hardman, J.G., Limbird, L.E., and Gilman, A.G, (eds)., 1987. Goodman and Goodman¥s. The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics. 10th ed., Vol. 10. MacGraw-Hill, Rio de Janeiro, pp.1011-1021.
Hussin, S.H.S., 2022. Optical properties of beetroot dye and its different applications. bn AL-Haitham Journal For Pure and Applied Sciences, 35(2), pp.17-27. DOI: https://doi.org/10.30526/35.2.2722
Kokhasmail, D.M., Tahir, T.F., and Azeez, K.F., 2020. Spectrophotometric indirect determination of captopril through redox reaction with n-bromosuccinimide and RB dye in pharmaceutical products. ARO-The Scientific Journal, 8(2), pp.8-14. DOI: https://doi.org/10.14500/aro.10662
Meixner, T., Rennenberg, H., and Kuhn, A.J., 2002. Temperature effects on redox reactions of the nitrogen cycle: A review. European Journal of Soil Science, 53(4), pp.539-556.
Nikolelis, D.P., Petropoulou, S.E., and Mitrokotsa, M.V., 2002. Aminisensor for the rapid screening of atenolol in pharmaceutical preparations based on surface stabilized bilayer lipid membranes with incorporated DNA. Bioelectrochemistry, 58(1), pp.107-112. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S1567-5394(02)00121-4
Nisa, A.U., Hina, S., Kalim, I., Saeed, M.K., Ahmad, I., Zahra, N., Mazhar, S., Masood, S., Ashraf, M., Syed, Q.A., and Shad, R., 2021. Quality assessment and application of red natural dye from beetroot (Beta vulgaris). Pakistan Journal of Agricultural Research, 34(3), pp.552-558. DOI: https://doi.org/10.17582/journal.pjar/2021/34.3.552.558
Pastore, K., and Capriglione, L., 1998. O feitiço do corpo ideal. Revista Veja, 1532, pp.62-69.
Pezza, L., Tubino, M., Melios, C.B., and Pezza, H.R., 2000. Rapid spot test analysis for the detection of dipyrone in pharmaceutical preparations. Analytical Sciences, 16(3), pp.313-315. DOI: https://doi.org/10.2116/analsci.16.313
Prashanth, K.N., and Basavaiah, K., 2012. Simple, sensitive and selective spectrophotometric methods for the determination of atenolol in pharmaceuticals through charge transfer complex formation reaction. Acta Poloniae Pharmaceutica and Drug Research, 69(2), pp.213-223.
Saad, S.M.H., Abou-Sekkina, M.M., El-Ries, M.A., and Wassel, A.A., 2003. Polymeric matrix membrane sensors for sensitive potentiometric determination of some beta-blockers in pharmaceutical preparations. Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis, 32(1), pp.175-180. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0731-7085(03)00015-3
Saleem, B.A.A., 2019. Spectrophotometric determination of atenolol using indigo carmine dye. Kirkuk University Journal for Scientific Studies, 14(2), pp.15-39. DOI: https://doi.org/10.32894/kujss.2019.14.2.2
Salem, H., 2002. Spectrophotometric determination of beta-adrenergic blocking agents in pharmaceutical formulations. Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis, 29(3), pp.527-538. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0731-7085(02)00100-0
Shadjou, N., Hasanzadeh, M., Saghatforoush, L., Mehdizadeh, R., and Jouyban, A., 2011. Electrochemical behavior of atenolol, carvedilol and propranolol on copper-oxide nanoparticles. Electrochimica Acta, 58, pp 336-347. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.electacta.2011.09.055
Shamsipur, M., and Jalali, F., 2005. Preparation of an atenolol ion‐selective electrode and its application to pharmaceutical analysis. Analytical Letters, 38(3), pp.401-410. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1081/AL-200047762
Thankappan, A., Thomas, S., and Nampoori, V.P.N., 2012. Effect of betanin natural dye extracted from red beet root on the nonlinear optical properties ZnO nanoplates embedded in polymeric matrices. Journal of Applied Physics, 112(12), pp.104-123. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1063/1.4768930
Vidotti, E.C., Costa, W.F., and Oliveira, C.C., 2006. Development of a green chromatographic method for determination of colorants in food samples. Talanta, 68(3), pp.516-521. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.talanta.2005.01.059
Wati, E.J., Chandra, B., and Rivai, H., 2020. Overview of the analysis methods of atenolol in pharmaceutical preparations and biological matrices during 2000-2020. Indian Journal of Preventive and Social Medicine, 5(11), pp.13-23. DOI: https://doi.org/10.47760/ijpsm.2020.v05i11.002
Weich, A., De Oliveira, D.C., De Melo, J., Goebel, K., and Rolim, C.M.B., 2007. Validation of UV spectrophotometric and HPLC methods for quantitative determination of atenolol in pharmaceutical preparations. Latin American Journal of Pharmacy, 26(5), pp.765-770
Copyright (c) 2023 Tara F. Tahir, Kurdistan F. Aziz, Dashne M. Kokhasmail
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
Authors who choose to publish their work with Aro agree to the following terms:
Authors retain the copyright to their work and grant the journal the right of first publication. The work is simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License [CC BY-NC-SA 4.0]. This license allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
Authors have the freedom to enter into separate agreements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work. This includes options such as posting it to an institutional repository or publishing it in a book, as long as proper acknowledgement is given to its initial publication in this journal.
Authors are encouraged to share and post their work online, including in institutional repositories or on their personal websites, both prior to and during the submission process. This practice can lead to productive exchanges and increase the visibility and citation of the published work.
By agreeing to these terms, authors acknowledge the importance of open access and the benefits it brings to the scholarly community.