Non-destructive Method of Leaf Area Estimation for Oleander (Nerium oleander L.) Cultivated in the Iraqi Kurdistan Region

Ikbal M. Al-Barzinji, Barham M. Amin


This study was conducted in the Iraqi Kurdistan region in January 2014 to determine the individual leaf area of oleander (Nerium oleander L.) by easy, accurate, inexpensive, and nondestructive method. Simple, multiple and exponential regression analyses were used by length (L) and width (W) and their combinations as independent variables and with leaf area as dependent variable to determine more accurate models (high coefficient of determination and less MSE). The results showed that the best fitting models that show more accurate estimation of oleander leaf area, compared to other models, were the simple linear regression that depends on length multiple width for Koya and Erbil cities and the total leaves of the two cities plants. On the other hand, the best fitting multiple linear equations were those which depend on square length and square width for Koya city and the total leaves of the two cities plants, whereas for Erbil city the best model was that depends on leaves with square length and width. Multiple linear regressions were the more accurate among the models, followed by simple linear regression, whereas the exponential model had the lowest accuracy. All coefficients of regressions values were found to be significant at the P < 0.0001 level.


Leaf area estimation, Nerium oleander L., non-destructive methods, regression equations.

Full Text:



Al-Barzinji, I.M., Khudhur, S.A. and Abdulrahman, N.M., 2015. Effect of some date, pre-treatment sowing, soil texture and foliar spraying of zinc on seedling of Dalbergia sissoo (Roxb.). ARO-The Scientific Journal of Koya University, 3(1), pp.14-22. Retrieved from aro.10050.

Bhatt, M. and Chanda, S.V., 2003. Prediction of leaf area in Phaseolus vulgaris by non-destructive method. Bulg. J. Plant Physiol., 29(2), pp.96-100.

Blanco, F.F. and Folegatti, M.V., 2005. Estimation of leaf area for greenhouse cucumber by linear measurements under salinity and grafting,” Agricultural Science, 62(4), pp.305–309.

Cho, Y.Y., Oh, S., Oh, M.M. and Son, J.E., 2007. Estimation of individual leaf area, fresh weight, and dry weight of hydroponically grown cucumbers (Cucumis sativus L.) using leaf length, width, and SPAD value. Sci. Hort., 111(4), pp.330–334.

Cirak, C., Odabas, M.S., Saglam, B. and Ayan, A.K., 2005. Relation between leaf area and dimensions of selected medicinal plants. Res. Agr. Eng., 51(1), pp.13–19.

Clewer, G.A. and Scarisbrick, D.H., 2001. Practical Statistics and Experimental Design for Plant and Crop Science. England, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Cristofori, V., Rouphael, Y., Mendoza-de Gyves, E. and Bignami, C., 2007. A simple model for estimating leaf area of hazelnut from linear measurements. Scientia Horticulturae, 113(2), pp.221–225.

Daughtry, C., 1990. Direct measurements of canopy structure. Remote Sensing Reviews, 5(1), pp.45–60.

De-Swart, E.A.M., Groenold, R., Kannne, H.J., Stam, P., Marceis, L.F.M. and Voorrips, R.E., 2004. Non-destructive estimation of leaf area for different plant ages and accessions of Capsicum annuum L. Journal of Horticultural Science & Biotechnology, 79(5), pp.764–770.

Fascella, G., Darwich, S. and Rouphael, Y., 2013. Validation of a leaf area prediction model proposed for rose. Chilean J. Agric., 73(1), pp.73-76.

Gutierrez, T. and Lavin, A., 2000. Linear measurements for non- destructive estimation of leaf area in ‘Chardonnay’ vines. Agricultura Técnica, 60(1), pp.69-73.

Kumar, R., 2009. Calibration and validation of regression model for non-destructive leaf area estimation of saffron (Crocus sativus L.). Scientia Horticulturae, 122(1), pp.142-145.

Kumar, R. and Sharma, S. 2010. Allometric model for nondestructive leaf area estimation in clary sage (Salvia sclarea L.). Photosynthetica, 48(2), pp.313-316.

Lakshmanan, C. and Pugazhendi, N., 2013. Leaf area prediction models through leaf morphometry. OUTREACH. A multi-Disciplinary Refereed Journal, 6, pp.99-106.

Mendoza-de Gyves, E., Rouphael, Y., Cristofori, V. and Rosana Mira, F., 2007. A non-destructive, simple and accurate model for estimating the individual leaf area of kiwi (Actinidia deliciosa). Fruits, 62(3), pp.171–176.

Mohammad, N.I., Farzad, P., Mohsen, Z., Mohammad, R.A. and Ali, K., 2011. Prediction model of leaf area in soybean (Glycine max L.). American Journal of Agricultural and Biological Sciences, 6(1), pp.110-113.

Nyakwende, E., Paull, C.J. and Atherton, J.G., 1997. Nondestructive determination of leaf area in tomato plants using image processing. Journal of Horticultural Science, 72(2), pp.255–262.

Olfati, J.A., Peyvast, G., Shabani, H. and Nosratie-Rad, N., 2010. An estimation of individual leaf area in cabbage and broccoli using non-destructive methods. J. Agr. Sci. Tech., 12(Supplementary issue), pp.627-632.

Olosunde, M.A., Dauda, T.O. and Aiyelaagbe, I.O., 2010. Rapid leaf area estimation of Crytorchid monteiroae. Journal of American Science, 6(12), pp.1549-1553.

Pandey, S.K. and Singh, H. 2011. A simple, cost-effective method for leaf area estimation. Journal of Botany. 6 pages. Doi: 10.1155/2011/658240

Peksen, E., 2007. Non-destructive leaf area estimation model for faba bean (Vicia faba L.). Sci. Hort., 113(4), pp.322–328.

Rasul, T.N., Abbas, A.S. and Abdul, K.S., 1986. 333 Question and Answer about Ornamental Plants, Fruits and Vegetative under Iraqi Environment Conditions. Mosul University. Iraq. Directorate of Dar Al-Kutob for printing and publication.

Reza, A.H., 2006. Design of Experiments for Agriculture and the Natural Sciences. New York, Chapman & Hall.

Rivera, C.M., Rouphael, Y., Cardarelli, M. and Colla, G., 2007. A simple and accurate equation for estimating individual leaf area of eggplant from linear measurements. European Journal of Horticultural Science, 72(5), pp.228–230.

Rosatia, A., Badeck, F.W. and Dejong, T.M., 2001. Estimating canopy light interception and absorption using leaf mass per unit leaf area in Solanum melongena. Annals of Botany, 88(1), pp.101-109.

Salerno, A., Rivera, C.M., Rouphael, Y., Colla, G., Cardarelli, M., Pierandrei, F., Rea, E. and Saccardo, F., 2005. Leaf area estimation of radish from linear measurements. Adv. Hort. Sci., 19, pp. 213–215.

Schwarz, D. and Klaring, H.P., 2001. Allometry to estimate leaf area of tomato. Journal of Plant Nutrition, 24(8), pp.1291–1309.

Srikrishnah, S. ,Peiris, S.E. and Sutharsan, S., 2012. Effect of shade levels on leaf area and biomass production of three varieties of Dracaena sanderianaL. in the dry zone of Sri Lanka. Tropical Agricultural Research, 23(2), pp.142–151.

Williams, L. and Martinson, T.E., 2003. Non-destructive leaf area estimation of ‘Niagara’ and ‘DeChawnac’ grape-vines. Scientia Horticulturae, 98(4), pp.493-498.

Zhang, L. and Liu, X., 2010. Non-destructive leaf area estimation for Bergenia purpuracenseacross timberline ecotone, south east Tibet. Ann. Bot. Fennici., 47(5), pp.346-352.

View Counter: Abstract | 646 | and PDF | 291 |

Article Metrics

Metrics Loading ...

Metrics powered by PLOS ALM


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2016 Ikbal M. Al-Barzinji, Barham M. Amin

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.


ARO Journal is an OAJ supported by Koya University, it has no article submission/processing charges (APCs).
© 2013-2019, Koya University is a public University accredited by the Ministry of Higher Education and Scientific Research, KRG - F.R. Iraq.