Some Enzymatic and Non-enzymatic Antioxidants Response under Nickel and Lead Stress for Some Fabaceae Trees

Keywords: Ascorbic acid, Catalase, Heavy metals, Nickel and Lead, Nitrate reductase, Peroxidase, Proline


This study investigates the effects of soil contamination by nickel and lead on some enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants in addition to the nitrate reductase (NR) enzyme activity for Gleditsia triacanthos, Leucaena leucocephala, and Robinia pseudoacacia plant species. The results of this study show a significant increase in peroxidase enzyme activity and a significant decrease in catalase enzyme activity, proline, total carotenoids, and total carbohydrate content of leaves of the three species with increasing the concentration of Ni and Pb except for the total carbohydrate, which increased only for L. leucocephala species. Each NR enzyme activity and ascorbic acid content are increased significantly with increasing the concentration of Ni and Pb for G. triacanthos, L. leucocephala, and on the contrary, they decreased significantly for R. pseudoacacia species. From the result, we can conclude a general increase or decrease in leaves content of some antioxidants content for all the species, whereas there is some peculiarity according to the plant species regarding other contents, which in turn reflects different mechanisms of these species to tolerant heavy metal stress



Download data is not yet available.

Author Biographies

Sargul A. Khudhur, Department of Biology, Faculty of Health and Science, Koya University, Kurdistan Region - F.R. Iraq

- Sargul A.Khudhur is a Lecturer at the Department of Biology, Faculty of Science and Health, Koya University. She got the B.Sc. degree in Forestry Science from KoyaUniversity, the M.Sc. degrees in Plant Physiology from Koya University. Her research interests are in Plant physiology, plant anatomy, plant nutrition, and Ecology.

lkbal M. Albarzinji , Department of Biology, Faculty of Health and Science, Koya University, Kurdistan Region - F.R. Iraq

Ikbal M. Albarzinji is a Professor at the Department of Biology, Faculty of Science and Health, Koya University. She got the B.Sc. degree in Horticulture from Baghdad University, the M.Sc. and the Ph.D. degrees in Plant and Post-Harvest Physiology from Baghdad University. Her research interests are in post-harvest physiology, plant physiology, plant nutrition, and olericulture.


Abdullah, K.H., Ahmed, G.B., Selah-Alden, M.T., Hassan, H.N., Mahmood, M.J., Hameed, N.A. and Amin, S.M., 2018. Overcoming seed dormancy of Robinia pseudoacacia L. and Ceratonia siliqua L. species using different pretreatments in Malta forest nursery-Duhok. Journal of University of Duhok, 21(1), pp.1-7.

Aebi, H.E., 1974. Catalase. In: Methods of Enzymatic Analysis. Vol. 2. Academic Press Inc., United States, pp.673-684.

Ahmad, S., Fazili1, I.S., Haque, R., Khan, S.N. and Abdin, M.Z., 2010. Standardization and estimation of nitrate reductase activity in the leaves of Ammi majus L. (Bishops weed) in relation to sulphur deficiency and seed yield. Australian Journal of Crop Science, 4(7), pp.515-522.

Ali, S., Hayat, K., Iqbal, A. and Xie, L., (2020). Implications of abscisic acid in the drought stress tolerance of plants. Agronomy, 10, p.1323.

Al-Mohammadi, S.H. and Al-Mohammadi, F., (2002). “Statistics and Experimental Design”. Dar Osama for Publishing and Distribution, Amman, Jordan. pp.375.

Álvarez, S.P., Cabezas-Montero, D., Debora-Duarte, B.N., Tapia, M.A., SidaArreola, J.P., Sánchez, E. and Héctor-Ardisana, E.F., 2019. Used response to antioxidative enzymes in rice under stress due to lead and nickel. Revista Mexicana de Ciencias Agrícolas, 10(1), pp.51-62.

Amari, T., Ghnaya, T. and Abdelly, C., 2017. Nickel, cadmium and lead phytotoxicity and potential of halophytic plants in heavy metal extraction. South African Journal of Botany, 111, pp.99-110.

Andresen, E., Edgar, P. and Hendrik, K., 2018. Trace metal metabolism in plants. Journal of Experimental Botany, 69(5), pp.909-954.

Bartkowiak, A., Lemanowicz, J. and Lamparski, R., 2020. Assessment of selected heavy metals and enzyme activity in soils within the zone of influence of various tree species. Scientific Reports,10, p.14077.

Bates, L.S., Waldron, R.P. and Tears, I.D., 1973. Rapid determination of free proline for water stress studies. Plant and Soil, 39, pp.205-207.

Bielen, A., Remans, T., Vangronsveld, J. and Cuypers, A., 2013. The influence of metal stress on the availability and redox state of ascorbate, and possible

interference with its cellular functions. International Journal of Molecular Sciences, 14, pp.6382-6413.

Caverzan, A., Casassola, A. and Brammer, S.P., 2016. Antioxidant responses of wheat plants under stress. Genetics and Molecular Biology, 39(1):1-6.

Das, K. and Roychoudhury, A., 2014. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and response of antioxidants as ROS-scavengers during environmental stress in plants. Frontiers in Environmental Science, 2, p.53.

Dey,S.K., Dey, J., Patra, S. and Pothal, D., 2007. Changes in the antioxidative enzymes activities and lipid peroxidation in wheat seedlings exposed to cadmium and lead stress. Brazilian Journal of Plant Physiology, 19(1), pp.53-60.

Dirr, M.A. and Heuser, C.W., 1987. The Reference Manual of Woody Plant Propagation. Varsity Press Inc., Athens, GA. p.239.

Elbsheer, S.E., 2018. Development of Methods for the Determination of Vitamin C Content in Some Dry Fruits and Leaves, Laloub and Mesquite (Balanites aegyptiaca and Prosopis juliflora). Sudan University of Science and Technology College of Graduate Studies, Sudan. (PhD Thesis). Available from: [Last accessed on 2022 Jul 01].

Gad, N., El-Sherif, M.H. and El-Gereedly, N.H., 2007. Influence of nickel on some physiological aspects of tomato plants. Australian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences, 1(3), pp.286-293.

Gill, S.S. and Tuteja, N., 2010. Reactive oxygen species and antioxidant machinery in abiotic stress tolerance in crop plants. Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, 48, pp.909-930.

Gull, A., Lone, A.A. and Wani, N.U., 2019. Biotic and abiotic stresses in plants. In: Abiotic and Biotic Stress in Plants, Intechopen, London, UK.

Hussain, S., Khaliq, A., Noor, M.A., Tanveer, M., Hussain, H.A., Hussain, S., Shah, T. and Mehmood, T., 2020. Metal Toxicity and Nitrogen Metabolism in Plants: An Overview. Springer Nature, Singapore. Available from: [Last accessed on 2022 Jul 01].

Joslyn, M.A., 1970. Analítico: Methods in Food Analysis. Physical, Chemical, and Instrumental Methods of Analysis, 2nd ed. Academic Press, New York. p.844.

Kacálková, L., Tlustoš, P. and Száková, J., 2014. Chromium, nickel, cadmium, and lead accumulation in maize, sunflower, willow, and poplar. Polish Journal of Environmental Studies, 23(3), pp.753-761.

Kartoori, S., Sumalatha, G.M., Shuba, A.C., Komala, N.T. and Biradar Patil, N.K., 2018. Role of enzymatic antioxidants defense system in seeds. International Journal of Current Microbiology and Applied Sciences, 7, pp.584-594.

Kumari, S. and Mishra, A., 2021. Heavy Metal Contamination. Life sciences. Intechopen, London, UK. Available from: [Last accessed on 2022 Jul 01]. doi: 10.5772/intechopen.93412

Lichtenthaler, H.K. and Wellburn, A.R., 1983. Determinations of total carotenoids and chlorophylls a and b of leaf extracts in different solvents. Biochemical Society Trtansaction, 11(5), pp.591-592.

Mame, S.O. and Ali Al-Rashed, H.S., 2021. Impact of ascorbic acid on the concentration of Carotene and Prolin in the legume (Vicia faba) Plants grown with Soil treated with Pb and Ni. Ecology, Environment and Conservation, 27, pp.S169-S172.

Matraszek, R., 2008. Nitrate reductase activity of two leafy vegetables as affected by nickel and different nitrogen forms. Acta Physiologiae Plantarum, 30(3), p.361-370.

Mittler, R., Vanderauwera, S., Gollery, M. and van Breusegem, F., 2004. Reactive oxygen gene network of plants. Trends in Plant Science, 9(10), pp.490-498.

Nezih, M., 1985. The peroxidase enzyme activity of some vegetables and its resistance to heat. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 36, pp.877-880.

Nyiramigisha, P., Komariah. and Sajidan., (2021). Harmful impacts of heavy metal contamination in the soil and crops grown around dumpsites. Agricultural Science, 9, pp.271-282.

Rajput, V.D., Harish, Singh, R.K., Verma, K.K., Sharma, L., Quiroz-Figueroa, F.R., Meena, M., Gour, V.S., Minkina, T., Sushkova, S. and Mandzhieva, S., 2021. Recent developments in enzymatic antioxidant defence mechanism in plants with special reference to abiotic stress. Biology, 10, p.267.

Ren, R., Li, Z., Zhang, L., Zhou, H., Jiang, X. and Liu, Y., 2021. Enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant systems impact the viability of cryopreserved Paeonia suffruticosa pollen. Plant Cell, Tissue and Organ Culture (PCTOC), 144, pp.233-246.

Sachdev, S., Ansari, S.K., Ansari, M.I., Fujita, M. and Hasanuzzaman, M., 2021. Abiotic stress and reactive oxygen species: Generation, signaling, and defense mechanisms. Journal Antioxidants, 10, p.277.

Santos-Sánchez, N.F., Salas-Coronado, R., Villanueva-Cañongo, C. and Hernández-Carlos, B., 2019. Antioxidant compounds and their antioxidant mechanism. In: Shalaby E. (editor), Antioxidants, IntechOpen, London. DOI: 10.5772/intechopen.85270

Shahid, M., Khalid, S., Abbas, G., Shahid, N., Nadeem, M., Sabir, M., Aslam, M. and Dumat, C., 2015. Heavy metal stress and crop productivity. In: Crop

Production and Global Environmental Issues. Springer International Publisher, Switzerland. Available from: [Last accessed on 2022 Jul 01].

Singh, G., Agnihotri, R.K., Reshma, R.S. and Ahmad, M., 2012. Effect of lead and nickel toxicity on chlorophyll and proline content of Urd (Vigna mungo L.) seedlings. International Journal of Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, 4(6), pp.136-141.

Ssenku, J.E., Ntale, M., Backeus, I. and Oryem-Origa, H., 2017. Hytoremediation potential of Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.) de Wit. for heavy metal-polluted and heavy metal-degraded environments. In: Phytoremediation Potential of Bioenergy Plants. Springer, Singapore. pp.189-209.

Taha, D.N., AL-Kuramy, A.A. and Al-Khalaf, A.K., 2008. Determination of lead, nickel and zinc in plants of North AL-Diwaniya City. Journal of Kerbala University, 6(4), p.58.

Tzvetkova, N. and Kolarov, D., 1996. Effect of air pollution on carbohydrate and nutrients concentrations in some decieduous tree species. Bulgarian Journal of Plant Physiology, 22(1-2), pp.53-63.

Vatansever, R., Ozyigit, I.I. and Filiz, E., 2017. Essential and beneficial trace elementsin plants, and their transport in roots. Biotechnology and Applied Biochemistry , 181(1), pp.464-482. Doi: 10.1007/s12010-016-2224-3

Yan, R., Gao, S., Yang, W., Cao, M., Wang, S. and Chen, F., 2008. Nickel toxicity induced antioxidant enzyme and phenylalanine ammonia-lyase activities in Jatropha curcas L. cotyledons. Plant, Soil and Environment, 54(7), pp.294-300.

How to Cite
Khudhur, S. A. and Albarzinji , lkbal M. (2022) “Some Enzymatic and Non-enzymatic Antioxidants Response under Nickel and Lead Stress for Some Fabaceae Trees”, ARO-THE SCIENTIFIC JOURNAL OF KOYA UNIVERSITY, 10(2), pp. 124-130. doi: 10.14500/aro.11033.