Spectrophotometric Indirect Determination of Captopril through Redox Reaction with n-bromosuccinimide and RB dye in Pharmaceutical Products
A simple, accurate, and sensitive method for the spectrophotometric determination of captopril in bulk and dosage forms is reported. The method is based on the bromination of captopril with excess solution of n-bromosuccinimide (NBS) in HCl acid medium. The excess NBS is pursued by the assessment of the residual NBS based on its ability to bleach the rhodamine B dye and measuring the absorbance at 555 nm. The amount of NBS reacted coincides to the drug content. The different experimental parameters influencing the development and stability of the color are precisely studied and optimized. Beer’s law is valid within a concentration range of 0.3–1.0 μg/mL with a correlation coefficient R2 = 0.991. The limit of detection 0.169 μg/mL is attained and relative standard deviation values for five replicated measurements of 0.3, 0.7, and 1.0 μg/mL captopril were between 0.53% and 2.03%. No interference is detected from prevalent additives found in pharmaceutical preparations. The proposed method is profitably put on to the determination of captopril in the tablet formulations with mean recoveries 98.91–101.27% and the results were statistically confronted with those of a reference method by applying Student’s t-and F-test.
Abdel‐Hady, A.M., 2013. Kinetics of oxidative degradation of rhodamine-B by N‐bromosuccinimide in aqueous alkaline medium. European Journal of Chemistry, 4(3), pp.292-296.
Ali, M.A., Moghaddasi, J., and Ahmed, S.A., 1991. Temperature effects in rhodamine B dyes and improvment in CW dye laser performance. Laser Chemistry, 11, pp.31-38.
Ana, B.F.V., Odonírio, A., Roseli, A.S.G., Giancarlo, R.S.B., and Robson, T.S.O., 2014. Electroanalytical determination of captopril in pharmaceutical formulations using boron-doped diamond electrodes. International Journal of Electrochemical Science, 9, pp.1044-1054.
Chenl, D., Chen, H., and Ku, H., 1995. Degradation rates of captopril in aqueous medium through buffer-catalysis oxidation. Drug Development and Industrial Pharmacy, 21(7), pp.781-792.
El-reis, M.A., Attia, F.A., and Kenawy, I.M.M., 2000. Indirect determination of captopril by AAS. Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis, 23(2), pp.249-254.
El-Didamony, A.M., and Erfan, E.A., 2010. Utilization of oxidation reactions for the spectrophotometric determination of captopril using brominating agents. Spectrochimica Acta Part A: Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy, 75(3), pp.1138-1145.
El-Shanawany, A.A., El-Adl, S.M., Abdel-Aziz, L.M., and Hassan, A.F., 2014. Spectrophotometric determination of cefradine and captopril in their bulk and dosage forms using O-phthalaldhyde (OPA). Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical Analysis, 4(1), pp.36-41.
Florentin, T., Alexandru, F., Andrei, M., and Victor, D., 2004. Captopril. Encyclopedia of Endocrine Diseases, 1, pp.447-450.
Fu, Z., Huang, W., Li, G., and Hu, Y., 2017. A chemiluminescence reagent free method for the determination of captopril in medicine and urine samples by using trivalent silver. Journal of Pharmaceutical Analysis, 7(4), pp.252-257.
International Conference on Harmonisation. 2005. Topic Q2 (R1): Validation of Analytical Procedures: Text and Methodology. International Conference on Harmonisation, Switzerland.
Iqbal, F.M., Ahmad, M., Zubair, M.M., Tulain, U.R., and Rashid, A., 2015. Determination of captopril in plasma by high-performance liquid chromatography: Application in an in-vivo evaluation of drug release from hydrogel. Latin American Journal of Pharmacy, 34(5), pp.875-884.
Jia, L., Pei, R., Lin, M., and Yang, X., 2001. Acute and subacute toxicity and efficacy of S-nitrosylated captopril, an ACE inhibitor possessing nitric oxide activities. Food and Chemical Toxicology, 39(12), pp.1135-1143.
Leenson, I.A., 1999. Old rule of thumb and the arrihenius equation. Journal of Chemical Education, 76(10), pp.1459-1460.
Lewis, I.F., Hunsicker, L.G., Bain, R.P., and Rohde, R.D., 1993. The effect of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition on diabetic nephropathy. The New England Journal of Medicine, 329(20), pp.1456-1462.
Lima, M.J., Fernandes, R.N., Tanaka, A.A., and Reis, B.F., 2016. Development of a new procedure for the determination of captopril in pharmaceutical formulations employing chemiluminescence and a multicommuted flow analysis approach. Luminescence, 31(1), pp.288-29
Marcolino-Junior, L.H., Bonifacio, V.G., Vicentini, F.C., Janegitz, B.C., and Fatibello-Filho, O., 2009. Amperometric determination of captopril using a carbon paste electrode in flow analysis. Canadian Journal of Analytical Sciences and Spectroscopy, 54(1), pp.45-51.
Milan, R., Joanna, B., Anna, R., and Waldemar, M., 2015. Molecular structure and acidity of captopril, zofenopril and their metabolites captopril disulfide and zofenoprilat. Computational and Theoretical Chemistry, 1062, pp.50-55.
Moldovan, Z., Badea, I.A., Bunaciu, A.A., and Aboul-Enein, H.Y., 2012. Indirect spectrophotometric method for determination of captopril using Cr(VI) and diphenylcarbazide. Quimica Nova, 35(8), pp.1668-1672.
Parving, H.H., Andersen, A.R., Smidt, U.M., Christiansen, J.S., Oxenboll, B., and Svendsen, P.A., 1983. Diabetic nephropathy and arterial hypertension: The effect of antihypertensive treatment. Diabetes, 32(2), pp.83-87.
Pereira, C.M., and Tam, Y.K., 1992. Stability of captopril in tap water. American Journal of Hospital Pharmacy, 49(3), pp.612-615.
Phillip, M., and Hall, M.D., 2006. Prevention of progression in diabetic nephropathy. Diabetes Spectrum, 19(1), pp.18-24.
Rao, K.S., Panda, M., Keshar, N.K., and Yada, S.K., 2012. Simultaneous estimation of captopril and hydrochlorothiazide in combined dosage forms. Chronicles of Young Scientists, 3(1), pp.37-41.
Ribeiro, P.R., Pezza, L., and Pezza, H.R., 2010. A simple spectrophotometric method for the determination of captopril in pharmaceutical preparations using ammonium molybdate. Eclética Química, 35(3), pp.179-188.
Safila, N., Najma, S., and Saeed, A.M., 2013. Method for the determination of captopril in bulk, pharmaceutical formulations and serum by HPLC using two different system. American Based Research Journal, 2(3), pp.8-14.
Salem, I.I., Abu Saif, W., Jmeian, Y., and Al Tamimi, J.I., 2005. A selective and rapid method for the quantification of captopril in human plasma using liquid chromatography/selected reaction monitoring mass spectrometry. Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis, 37(5), pp.1073-1080.
Shafi, N., Siddiqui, F.A., Sultana, N., and Arayne, M.S., 2015. Concurrent determination of diltiazem, lisinopril, captopril, and enalapril in dosage formulations and in human serum by liquid chromatographic technique. Journal of Liquid Chromatography and Related Technologies, 38(15). pp.1466-1473.
Skowron, M., and Ciesielski, W., 2011. Spectrophotometric determination of methimazole, D-penicillamine, captopril, and disulfiram in pure form and drug formulations. Journal of Analytical Chemistry, 66(8), pp.714-719.
Tahir, T.F., Qader, A.F., Salih, M.I., and Rashid, E.Q., 2019. L-tryptophan as fluorescent probe for determination of folic acid in some pharmaceutical products. ARO The Scientific Journal, 7(2), pp.19-26.
Tomas, P., Carmen, M., and Raquel, G., 2006. Development and validation of a capillary electrophoresis method with laser-induced fluorescence detection for the determination of captopril in human urine and pharmaceutical preparations. Electrophoresis, 27(12), pp.2310-2316.
Vancea, S., Imre, S., Donath-Nagy, G., Bela, T., Nyulas, M., Muntean, T., and Borka-Balas, R., 2009. Determination of free captopril in human plasma by liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry detection. Talanta, 79(2), pp.436-441.
Zhang, P., Wang, L., Zing, J., Tan, J., Long, Y., and Wang, Y., 2020. Colorimetric captopril assay based on oxidative etching-directed morphology control of silver nanoprisms. Microchim, 187, pp.107-115.
Zhaofu, F., Wanting, H., Gongke, L., and Yufei, H., 2017. A chemiluminescence reagent free method for the determination of captopril in medicine and urine samples by using trivalent silver. Journal of Pharmaceutical Analysis, 7(4), pp.252-257.
Copyright (c) 2020 Tara F. Tahir, Dashne M. Kokhasmail, Kurdistan F. Azeez
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
Authors who choose to publish their work with Aro agree to the following terms:
Authors retain the copyright to their work and grant the journal the right of first publication. The work is simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License [CC BY-NC-SA 4.0]. This license allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
Authors have the freedom to enter into separate agreements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work. This includes options such as posting it to an institutional repository or publishing it in a book, as long as proper acknowledgement is given to its initial publication in this journal.
Authors are encouraged to share and post their work online, including in institutional repositories or on their personal websites, both prior to and during the submission process. This practice can lead to productive exchanges and increase the visibility and citation of the published work.
By agreeing to these terms, authors acknowledge the importance of open access and the benefits it brings to the scholarly community.