Comparative Quality Analysis between Tap Water and Bottled Water
A Case Study of Koya City in Iraq
Recently, bottled water consumption has been increasing significantly, even when the quality of tap water is considered excellent, which contributes to plastic pollution. Besides, reducing the use of plastic generally is recommended world widely, as its consumption is in an alarming rate. Therefore, this study aims to compare the tap and bottled water and manifest the reasons behind choosing the bottled water, which is less comfortable and often more expensive over the tap water. In this study, samples have been taken from both bottled and tap water in Koya city from November 2020 to May 2021 to test their quality using PH, DO, EC, and TDS meter, hardness was determined by complexometric titration method at 21°C, and XRF spectrometers. According to the quality standards, most of the variables were in a permissible range, except for dissolved oxygen and Aluminum content in both types of water and TDS for two types of bottled water. However, the quality of tap water was much safer to be used, as compared with the bottled water.
Chapman, G., 1986. Ambient Water Quality Criteria for Dissolved Oxygen, EPA-440/5-86-003. U. S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, D.C. Available from: https://www.who.int/water_sanitation_health/resourcesquality/wpcchap2.pdf. [Last accessed on 10 Aug 2021].
Enderlein, U., Enderlein, R. and Williams, W., 1997. In: World Health Organization, editor. Water Pollution Control: A Guide to the Use of Water Quality Management Principles. E & FN Spon, London, pp.9-47. Available from: https://www.apps.who.int/iris/handle/10665/41967. [Last accessed on 10 Aug 2021].
Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) on pH and Alkalinity, 2006. Volunteer Estuary Monitoring a Methods Manual. 2nd ed. Environmental Protection
Agency, Washington, DC, United States, pp.185-196. Available from: https://www.epa.gov/sites/default/files/2015-09/documents/2007_04_09_estuaries_monitoruments_manual.pdf. [Last accessed on 10 Aug 2021].
Ferrier, C., 2001. Bottled water: Understanding a social phenomenon. AMBIO: A Journal of the Human Environment, 30(2), pp.118-119.
Hayashi, M., 2004. Temperature-electrical conductivity relation of water for environmental monitoring and geophysical data inversion. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 96, pp.119-128. Available from: https://www.link.springer.com/article. [Last accessed on 10 Aug 2021].
Meride, Y. and Ayenew, B., 2016. Drinking water quality assessment and its effects on resident’s health in Wondo genet campus, Ethiopia. Environmental Systems Research, 5(1), p.35.
Qian, N., 2017. Bottled water or tap water? A comparative study of drinking water choices on University Campuses. Water, 10(1), p.59.
Sen Gupta, A. and McNeil, B., 2012. Variability and change in the ocean. In: Henderson-Sellers, A. and McGuffie, K., editors. The Future of the World’s Climate. 2nd ed., Ch. 6. Elsevier, Boston, pp.141-165.
World Health Organization and International Programme on Chemical Safety, 1996. Guidelines for Drinking-Water Quality. 2nd ed., Vol. 2. World Health Organization, Geneva. Available from: https://www.file:///c:/users/high%20tech/downloads/9241544805.pdf. [Last accessed on 10 Aug 2021].
World Health Organization and International Programme on Chemical Safety, 2006. Guidelines for Drinking-Water Quality [Electronic Resource]: Incorporating First Addendum. 3rd ed., Vol. 1. World Health Organization, Geneva. Available from: https://www.who.int/water_sanitation_health/dwq/gdwq0506.pdf. [Last accessed on 10 Aug 2021].
World Health Organization and International Programme on Hardness in Drinking-Water, 2011. Guidelines for Drinking-Water Quality. World Health Organization Press, Geneva. Available from: https://www.who.int/water_sanitation_health/dwq/chemicals/hardness.pdf. [Last accessed on 10 Aug 2021].
Xianhong, Y., Shijun, L., Jian, H. and Jie, X., 2021. Application analysis of conductivity in drinking water quality analysis. IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science, 784(1), p.012028.
Copyright (c) 2021 Hanaa A. Muhammad, Khalid N. Sediq, Kwestan H. Sdiq
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License [CC BY-NC-SA 4.0] that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).