A Study on the Prevalence and Source of Staphylococci and Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus Causing Superficial Incisional Surgical Site Infection

Keywords: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Source of Infections, Staphylococcus spp., Surgical site infection


Staphylococcus aureus and coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) are common causatives of superficial incisional surgical site infection (SSI). The source of the pathogens is still not fully diagnosed whether it is endogenous or exogenous particularly with regard to the extent of its resistance to antibiotics. Therefore, this study is designed to determine the rate of infection, the source of pathogens, and the extent of their resistance to antibiotics. For this purpose, pre-, intra- and post-operative swabs from the nasal and skin of patients undergoing surgeries and samples from the hospital environment have been collected and processed for isolation and identification of staphylococci. Bacterial analysis and antibiotic susceptibility profiles of the isolates are assessed by unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean (UPGMA) analysis based on random amplified polymorphic DNA-polymerase chain reaction (RAPD-PCR) and disc diffusion test for antibiotics susceptibility profile. The microbiological and PCR results indicate that SSIs are found in 113/512 (22.07%), Staphylococcus spp. rated 67/512 (13.09%) of infections. Further analysis indicates that S. aureus, CoNS, and both of them were causes SSI with different rates 41/67 (61.2%), 23/67 (34.3%), and 3/67 (4.5%), respectively. Results of RAPD-PCR for 70 isolates reveal that 52/70 (74.28%) of SSIs are from endogenous source, followed by 10/70 (14.29%) and 8/70 (11.43%) from hospitals acquired and undetermined sources, respectively. Moreover, results of antibiotic susceptibility test reveal that 24/44 (54.5%) of isolates belong to methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus; from both endogenous and exogenous sources with 13/24 (54.17%) and 11/24 (45.83%), respectively.


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Author Biographies

Kameran M. Ali, Department of Medical Lab Technology, Kalar Technical College, Sulaimani Polytechnic University, Kalar, Kurdistan Region – F.R. Iraq

Kameran M. Ali is a Lecturer at the Department of Medical Laboratory Technology, Kalar Technical College, Sulaimani Polytechnic University. He got the B.Sc. degree in Biology, the M.Sc. degree in Molecular Biology. His research interests are in Medical Microbiology and Molecular Microbiology. Kameran is a member of Kurdistan Academics Association and Kurdistan Biological Syndicate.

Bahrouz M. A. Al-Jaff, Department of Biology, College of Education, University of Sulaimani, Sulaimani, Kurdistan Region – F.R. Iraq

Bahrouz M. A. Al-Jaff is an Assistant Prof. at the Department of Biology, College of Education, University of Sulaimani. He got the B.Sc. degree in Microbiology, the M.Sc. degree in Microbiology/Fungal genetics, PhD degree in Molecular Microbiology. His research interests are in Microbiology and Molecular Microbiology. Dr. Bahrouz is a member of the executive body of Kurdistan Academics Association and Kurdistan Biological Syndicate.



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How to Cite
Ali, K. M. and Al-Jaff, B. M. A. (2021) “A Study on the Prevalence and Source of Staphylococci and Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus Causing Superficial Incisional Surgical Site Infection”, ARO-THE SCIENTIFIC JOURNAL OF KOYA UNIVERSITY, 9(1), pp. 114-121. doi: 10.14500/aro.10752.